Special, Aspirational and Contributed Sessions
SS002 Environmental epigenetics: key mechanisms of acclimatization and adaptation to global ocean change
Marine organisms’ persistence hinges on the capacity for acclimatization and adaptation to the myriad of interacting environmental stressors associated with global climate change. In this context, epigenetics—mechanisms that facilitate phenotypic variation through genotype–environment interactions—are of great interest ecologically and evolutionarily. Emerging insights in marine environmental epigenetics can be applied to critical issues such as aquaculture, biomonitoring, and biological invasions, thereby improving our ability to explain and predict the responses of marine taxa to global climate change. The proposed session aims to attract cutting-edge research from investigators working on environmental epigenetics across different levels (from molecules to ecosystems), and using diverse model systems (especially ecologically and environmentally relevant species). The ultimate goal is to provide a timely insight into the potential of this approach to revolutionize our understanding of ecological and evolutionary dynamics at a critical climate change juncture, in an invaluable marine setting. In addition to selected talks and posters, we envision the edition of a special issue in the journal Frontiers in Marine Sciences (where lead Chair Dr. Eirin-Lopez is Associate Editor), gathering full research manuscripts representing the most relevant communications presented in this session.
SS003 Adventures, Challenges, and Benefits of Conducting International Collaborative Research *
Aquatic sciences are increasingly global in nature, transcending political boundaries and requiring collaborations with foreign scientists along with working in other countries. Planning and executing collaborative research projects overseas, however, is not trivial. Challenges including identifying and communicating with scientists in a different country, obtaining funding for international work, overcoming technical obstacles such as shipping, permits, and dealing with language and cultural barriers, are just a few examples. In this session we invite participants at all stages of their career to share their experiences and lessons learned from both productive and not so successful adventures in conducting international collaborative research in aquatic sciences. We seek talks and posters on international collaboration related to funding, identifying collaborators, executing projects, overcoming obstacles, developing teams, leveraging mutual advantages and infrastructure, handling difficulties, and successful outcomes. We hope that this exchange will help others avoid pitfalls and take advantage of opportunities and increase the likelihood for effective and fun international collaborations in the aquatic sciences.
SS004 Undergraduate Research in Aquatic Sciences - Posters *
Undergraduates who have conducted research are invited to present their results in this general session that will highlight the wide variety of student research and provide an opportunity for interested faculty to discuss your project with you. Students who have participated in REU programs are particularly invited so that we may showcase the wide range of research experiences available through this program. Students are not limited to this session, and we encourage any undergraduate student who wishes to submit an abstract to a specialized science session in the subject of her/his research to consider that option as well.
SS005 ASLOMP Student Symposium *
This session is sponsored by the ASLO Multicultural Program. It provides undergraduate and beginning graduate students an opportunity to present their work in an oral or poster session with a friendly and supportive audience. Any student attending the conference who has not before presented in the student symposium or in a regular oral session may submit their abstract for the oral session. This session is open to all students regardless of their affiliation with the ASLO Multicultural Program. We look forward to a diverse mix of students from all backgrounds and interests.
SS006 Plastics in the aquatic environment
Aron Stubbins, Northeastern University, Boston (email@example.com)
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Institut de Ciencias del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kara Lavender Law, Sea Education Association, Woods Hole (email@example.com)
Daoji Li, East China Normal University, Shanghai (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The production and release of plastics into the environment continues to accelerate driving widespread contamination of aquatic systems. Recognition of the physical extent and ecological impact of plastics is growing. It is critical that a broad community of aquatic scientists work together to understand how these unique contaminants are altering the natural world. To that end, this session will bring together researchers conducting diverse studies of plastics in the aquatic environment from sediments to the water’s surface and across the freshwater-marine continuum. Research detailing the chemistry, sources, distribution and fate of plastics are encouraged. As are those that describe the influence of plastics upon the ecology, form and function of aquatic ecosystems, including the emergence of the plastisphere as an anthropogenic ecosystem.
SS007 Halophila stipulacea: Ecology and management of the globally invasive seagrass
The Red Sea and Indian Ocean seagrass Halophila stipulacea has been introduced to both the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, making it the first global alien seagrass. New ‘first reports’ are documented nearly yearly in the Caribbean with evidence suggesting that the seagrass will continue its spread, yet little is known about the plant’s life history and ecosystem effects on areas where it has been introduced. In fact, the ecological classification of this species as either introduced or invasive is still debatable, owing largely to the paucity of studies on its impact throughout much of its historically recent range. This session will bring together researchers working on H. stipulacea in its natural and introduced ranges in order to stimulate exchanges and collaborations that will a) summarize our current ecological and evolutionary understanding of the species, b) encourage synthesis of knowledge resulting in a global assessment of H. stipulacea, and c) highlight plausible management strategies for this seagrass in its non-native ranges.
SS009 Hágase la luz- Light in aquatic ecosystems: Variability and ecological consequences
Rebecca North, University of Missouri (email@example.com)
Maren Striebel, University of Oldenburg (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Greg Silsbe, University of Maryland (email@example.com)
Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa, University of Oldenburg (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kevin Rose, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (email@example.com)
Jochen Wollschläger , University of Oldenburg (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Robyn Smyth, Bard College (email@example.com)
Oliver Zielinski, University of Oldenburg (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ruchi Bhattacharya, University of Missouri (email@example.com)
Patrick Neale, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Light is a master variable in aquatic ecosystems. Light intensity and spectral distribution hold the key to understanding the dynamics and variability of physical, biological, and chemical processes on all scales in aquatic ecosystems. Light is considered a major driver of energy and material flow, can be a limiting or co-limiting resource, and can drive competition. For example, light introduces heat into the upper water layer, drives primary production, and degrades substances. It is important to understand optical properties in the context of climate and other environmental changes across aquatic environments including inland, coastal, and marine ecosystems. For example, there have been observed shifts in circulation and stratification related to warming water temperatures and shorter winters, all of which can alter the underwater light environment. A goal of this session is to highlight factors contributing to changes in transparency and the resultant impacts on ecosystem processes. We need a better grasp of the implications of both the timing and the magnitude of altered light conditions on our aquatic ecosystems on a global scale. We invite contributions from field scale, lab, modelling, and predictive studies, which investigate both basic and applied research questions related to underwater light.
SS010 Exploring what makes undergraduate research experiences work: evidence from students and mentors *
Alan Wilson, Auburn University (email@example.com)
Patrick Crumrine, Rowan University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Gretchen Hofmann, University of California Santa Barbara (email@example.com)
David Fields, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Shane Rogers, Clarkson University (email@example.com)
Sarah Cohen, San Francisco State University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Undergraduate research experience is often highlighted as one of the most important factors associated with participants’ interest and success in STEM careers. Despite this relationship, questions surrounding what specific features of these experiences lead to positive outcomes remain relatively unanswered in part because there is considerable variability in the structure of undergraduate research experiences. This session will bring together mentors and current & past undergraduate researchers to explore best practices in undergraduate research mentoring and identify elements of past experiences that had positive impacts on the careers of undergraduate researchers. The discussion will also cover aspects of how undergraduate research experience broaden participation in research, and further what practices are most effective for a diversity of participants. Participants will discuss undergraduate research experiences occurring at a mentees’ home institution and those occurring through competitive undergraduate research programs, such as the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates. The nuances and challenges of mentoring (including effective communication skills as well as ethnic and cultural sensitivity) will be uniquely addressed in case studies that are intended to provide guidance and pathways to solutions. This session is targeted for current or prospective practitioners associated with undergraduate research.
SS011 Anatomy of a bloom: Unraveling drivers of biomass change and carbon dynamics over the annual cycle
Jason Graff, Oregon State University (email@example.com)
Peter Gaube, University of Washington - Applied Physics Lab (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kay Bidle, Rutgers University (email@example.com)
Susanne Menden-Deuer, University of Rhode Island (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Craig Carlson, University of California Santa Barbara (email@example.com)
Scott Doney, University of Virginia (firstname.lastname@example.org)
A comprehensive understanding of bloom dynamics and their climate sensitivities requires understanding the processes driving annual cycles in biomass and organic carbon at appropriate temporal and spatial scales. Seasonally resolved field programs (e.g. NASA NAAMES) and technological advancements (e.g. profiling floats, flow cytometry applications, genomics) are providing new insights on growth and loss processes of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic communities that are challenging traditional views. Mechanistic controls and their effects (e.g. stochastic decoupling of growth and loss rates, phytoplankton stress, and species diversity) must be explored in the context of net accumulation rates in biomass and organic carbon. This session will examine mechanisms and interactions, ranging in scale from viruses to meso- and basin-scale physics, which regulate annual cycles in plankton biomass and inform predictions of future change. Our focus will be on the classic bloom-forming subarctic Atlantic, with a particular interest in the western reaches of the basin. The session will highlight results from in-situ, remote sensing, or modeling efforts providing new insights on plankton annual cycles and organic carbon dynamics.
SS012 Tracing the natural and anthropogenic carbon cycle across aquatic environments
Andrew Margolin, Virginia Institute of Marine Science (email@example.com) (Email address until 9-25-18) (Please also cc Andrew on all correspondence at firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ryan Woosley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (email@example.com)
The aquatic carbon cycle plays a fundamental role in controlling Earth’s climate because it represents one of the largest active reservoirs of carbon. Identifying how carbon cycles through the aquatic environments is necessary for understanding the present, past, and future climates. Approximately one third of anthropogenic CO2 has penetrated the deep ocean, while pollutants and nutrients released into inland waterways drain into marginal seas and promote the accumulation of organic material and the subsequent respiration and production of inorganic carbon. Such perturbations overlie a large nature cycle; therefore, understanding anthropogenic phenomena can only be attained by first identifying the natural carbon cycle and then isolating the intrusion of anthropogenic material. The broader role of the aquatic environment’s carbon cycle and related processes, spanning the fields of limnology and oceanography, will be discussed. Studies that consider the natural and/or anthropogenic carbon cycle and related biogeochemical processes, employ diverse tracers (e.g., isotopes, optics or MLR), and span the continuum of aquatic environments are encouraged.
SS013 Adaptation of aquatic biodiversity to global change
Human-induced global change has had profound impacts on the structure and diversity of ecological communities in marine and freshwater environments. Many of these anthropogenic disturbances are also well-recognized evolutionary forces, reshaping selective pressures acting on populations and shifting intraspecific trait distributions over relatively short time scales. Under some conditions, rapid adaptation can also prevent population extirpation (‘evolutionary rescue’) and influence population, community, and ecosystem processes (‘eco-evolutionary dynamics’). We propose a special session that will showcase recent work on contemporary adaptation in aquatic organisms in response to anthropogenic stressors. Presentations will focus on a diversity of aquatic habitats, taxonomic groups (phyto-, zoo-, and bacterioplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish), and dimensions of global change (climate change, habitat degradation, invasive species, harvest, and pollution). Topics covered will include the role of heritable and non-heritable trait change in adaptation to stressors, the effect of spatial processes on adaptation, and the influence of human-induced trait change on population dynamics, species interactions, and ecosystem processes. Overall, this symposium will demonstrate that an explicit consideration of evolutionary processes is required to broaden our understanding of the response of aquatic biodiversity to global change.
SS014 Ecosystem Based Management: Holistic Approaches to Effective Management of Regional Ecosystems
Michael Roman, Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Felix Martinez, NOS/NCCOS/NOAA (Felix.Martinez@noaa.gov)
Amie West, Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (email@example.com)
Ecosystem based management (EBM) is a holistic and adaptive approach to developing effective policies for ensuring ecosystem sustainability, food and water security, and improved human health outcomes for future generations. Informed by science, it incorporates the entire ecosystem, including humans, into resource management decisions. EBM-based problem solving requires coordinated action across institutions operating at different scales and that have differing responsibilities. This session welcomes presentations on EBM approaches in coastal marine ecosystems. EBM topics of interest include applications to multiple stressors; governance structure and the links between research and local, state, and federal managers; and the integration of natural and social science to maximize the potential of EBM to address regional ecosystem issues. Talks that are focused on identifying major scientific knowledge gaps impeding the progress of EBM in a particular regional ecosystem (e.g., Northern Gulf of Mexico, Chesapeake Bay, Florida Keys, etc.) are encouraged.
SS018 Metabolic diversity in marine biogeochemical cycles in present and future ocean
Gerhard J. Herndl, University of Vienna, Austria and NIOZ (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Eva Sintes, Instituto Español de Oceanografia (email@example.com)
Federico Baltar, University of Vienna (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Thomas Reinthaler, University of Vienna (email@example.com)
Recent advances in analytical methods opened new avenues to shed light onto the diversity of organic molecules in the oceanic environment. Similarly, the application of metagenomics, -transcriptomics and –proteomics allow obtaining insights into the metabolic diversity within microbial communities from the sunlit surface waters to the deep ocean realm. Gene or protein abundance do not provide information, however, on turnover rates of specific DOM compounds. Hence, a combination of approaches is required to fully understand the transformation of DOM by microbial communities combining recently developed approaches to characterize DOM with methods targeting the functional diversity of microbial communities and linking this to bulk measurements of microbial activity such as microbial biomass production and respiration to mechanistically understand the role of microbial communities in biogeochemical cycles of the present and future ocean. This session should bring together scientists from the fields of marine biogeochemistry and biological and microbial oceanography.
SS019 Blue Carbon: from the ecosystem to the markets
Miguel-Angel Mateo, Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Paul Lavery, Edith Cowan University (email@example.com)
Oscar Serrano, Edith Cowan University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Martin Skov, Bangor University (email@example.com)
A relentless CO2 raise in the atmosphere is also increasing the interest in the conservation and promotion of biospheric carbon sinks as an aid to attenuate that trend. These include the sinks associated to Blue Carbon Ecosystems (BCE): saltmarshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows. In the same way as each additional ton of CO2 captured or not emitted by terrestrial forests can be traded with in the regular or voluntary carbon markets (cap and trade approach), the CO2 sequestered by BCE could be turned into tradable carbon credits via offsetting projects. The path to monetization is not easy. First, a detailed quantification of sinks size and dynamics is imperative. These are important challenges, both conceptual and technical, given the high complexity of the processes involved, the extension and diversity of the BCE, and the overall scarcity of information available. Then, the tons of carbon captured or emissions avoided have to be certified through labyrinthine numerical approximations and, finally, integrated in the current environmental legislations. This session welcomes contributions targeting any of the challenges above or any combination of them, from basic science addressing the phenomenon of refractory accumulation and its controls, to current initiatives of BCE reforestation or trading policy.
SS020 Large lakes of the world: detecting changes using long-term monitoring
Lyubov Burlakova, SUNY College at Buffalo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Alexander Karatayev, SUNY College at Buffalo (email@example.com)
Lars Rudstam, Cornell University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Elizabeth Hinchey Molloy, US EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office (email@example.com)
Large lakes worldwide contain most of the world’s freshwater resources and at the same time are often centers of intense human activities. In spite of their size, these systems have been shown to be susceptible to anthropogenic stressors, including introductions of nutrients, contaminants and non-native species, which have resulted in declines in water quality and recreational potential, shifts in fisheries, as well as losses in biodiversity and changes in food web structure. Consequently, monitoring programs needed for assessment to inform decision making must be customized for different impacts and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales. Despite the unique challenges of monitoring and managing large lake ecosystems, scientific connections among researchers working on large lakes are often circumscribed regionally. In this session, we aim to connect scientists studying the world’s large lakes, and we invite talks that address the response of these ecosystems to a range of environmental stressors with the goal of identifying common drivers, patterns of temporal dynamics, coupling across sub-systems from the watershed to nearshore to offshore, and remediation techniques.
SS021 Transitioning scientific research into meaningful applications
Aquatic sciences are fundamental for helping societies to achieve positive societal, economic, and environmental outcomes based on robust scientific knowledge and technological advancements. The scientific community can help society understand and responsibly use ocean, coastal and Great Lakes resources and can support informed personal, policy and management decisions that impact our coastal communities. However, transitioning applied research into useful applications is often challenging. Successful research to application projects require an understanding of stakeholder needs, well designed scientific research, collaborative partnerships, effective communication, and adequate resources for transition. The ability to forge and maintain effective partnerships across multiple sectors and disciplines is critical. This session seeks submissions that exemplify research informing or leading to management applications. Submissions should highlight how researchers leverage the power of collaborations and demonstrate how research results are informing science-based management and policy using an integrated approach to research, outreach, and engagement. We also welcome examples of research to application projects that have been unsuccessful and the lessons learned from such experiences.
SS022 Phytoplankton-bacteria interactions: molecular insights, chemical drivers, and behavioral dynamics
Kristen Whalen, Haverford College (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Elizabeth Harvey, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (email@example.com)
David Rowley, University of Rhode Island (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Production of organic carbon by phytoplankton and its consumption by heterotrophic bacterioplankton lies at the foundation of aquatic food webs. Understanding the metabolic interactions between these broad functional groups and the consequences these co-evolved exchanges have on the phycosphere microenvironment can provide insights into microbial community structure and ecosystem dynamics. The complexity of phytoplankton-bacteria interactions and challenges associated with connecting laboratory experiments to in-situ ocean-basin observations requires new approaches, technologies, and collaborations across disciplines to assist in elucidating the general principles governing these interactions. This session will explore recent advances and current limitations in our understanding of the metabolic and molecular underpinnings of interactions between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton in aquatic environments. We welcome contributions from both environmental samples and laboratory defined microbial co-cultures. Possible foci include: molecules and metabolic pathways governing chemical exchanges; “omics-enabled” approaches to understand microbial associations and community functions; in-situ experiments deducing molecular connections and microbial behavior; physiological and organismal approaches to understand phytoplankton health and response to infochemicals; and theoretical and evolutionary studies to define persistently co-occurring species. Submissions involving approaches that combine multiple levels of analyses are especially encouraged.
SS023 Carbon Cycling Across Gradients in the Land-Ocean-Continuum
Michael Seidel, University of Oldenburg, Germany (email@example.com)
Nicholas D. Ward, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sairah Y. Malkin, University of Maryland, USA (email@example.com)
Patricia M. Medeiros, University of Georgia, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org)
A major challenge in biogeochemistry remains to unravel the interconnections of carbon cycling across the aquatic continuum. The interface between freshwater and marine ecosystems is of particular interest due to its high complexity and poorly constrained mechanisms. For example, river discharge and salinity are major drivers of carbon fluxes along river plumes due to their control on microbial community composition as well as organic and inorganic constituents. Yet, large gaps remain in the coverage of carbon fluxes and their connection to factors such as organic matter composition and nutrient availability. Understanding the biogeochemical transformation of organic matter across land-sea connections will ultimately help us to predict how anthropogenic influences may be altering these cross-boundary fluxes. In this session, we seek to bring together scientists from all areas of carbon biogeochemistry that cut across ecosystem boundaries, covering ecosystems from a wide range of latitudinal settings and spatiotemporal scales. Contributions that examine the mechanisms underlying observed patterns in the distribution or rates of sedimentary, particulate and dissolved organic matter transformation, their linkage to CO2 outgassing/uptake, microbial community composition and nutrient cycling across aquatic gradients are particularly encouraged.
SS024 Reconstructing adaptive responses in aquatic ecosystems using ancient DNA and resurrection ecology
Raffaele Siano, Ifremer (email@example.com)
Marianne Ellegaard, University of Copenhagen (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Isabelle Domaizon, INRA (email@example.com)
John Anderson, Loughborough University (N.J.Anderson@lboro.ac.uk)
Delphine Latour, Univiersity of Clermont-Ferrand (firstname.lastname@example.org)
In this session we will discuss two emerging research fields - sedimentary ancient DNA (aDNA) and resurrection ecology - for cross-fertilization between limnologists and marine biologists. Our aim is to facilitate the development of these new paleo-ecological proxies, which allow addressing questions about how aquatic ecosystems respond to natural and human forcing. Several studies have showed the potential to extract aDNA in sediment dated to up to over 100 000 years ago. These methods increase the range of proxies that can be reconstructed from historical sediment archives and open up many new areas of inquiry with the possibility of reconstructing past diversity of many biological groups (from microbes to macro-organisms). Sediment aDNA studies are complemented by resurrection ecological studies which consist in reviving centuries old resting stages buried in sediments. Living culture material derived from these revived stages have been used for population genetic/genomic and ecophysiological studies. Our challenge is to discuss both the potential and future challenges associated with the study of aDNA and resurrection ecology in ecological, biological and evolutionary contexts. These methods combined have the potential to take the field of aquatic paleo-ecology a large step forward while linking contemporary- and paleo-ecology closer.
SS027 Small scale spatial and temporal patterns in particles, plankton, and other organisms
It has long been known that the myriad of particles/organisms in the aquatic environment are not homogeneously distributed; in fact, strongly localized patches are more often the norm. This ‘patchiness’ in distribution can manifest itself in either horizontal or vertical directions and occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Examples include harmful algal blooms, ‘thin layers’ of phytoplankton and zooplankton, and schools of krill and fish. This patchiness is driven by a complex set of factors including, but not limited to, ocean mixing/advection at various scales, stratification, nutrients, and light. Patchiness can have significant consequences to aquatic ecology studies, including biological productivity, predator-prey interactions and ecosystem dynamics. Technological advances over the past decade, including reduced computational costs and novel instrumentation, have led to increased research efforts in this area. This session aims to draw researchers working to better understand small scale ‘patchiness’ in particles and/or organisms across spatial scales ranging from a few mm to several km, and over temporal scales ranging from a few seconds to several days, using theoretical, numerical, and/or laboratory/field-based efforts.
SS028 The multiple challenges of rapidly changing tropical freshwater ecosystems
Tropical freshwater ecosystems (both lentic and lotic) provide ecosystem services that fuel local economies, often acting as regional economic engines in otherwise depressed developing economies. However, in tropical countries limited environmental regulations and sparse enforcement of those regulations can lead to a series of antagonistic stressors that inhibit aquatic ecosystems from providing the services that people depend on. Growing human populations and changing climate are altering tropical ecosystems at an unprecedented pace with important implications for local, regional, and even national governance. In this session we will attempt to identify common themes in how tropical freshwater ecosystems are changing in response to different stressors. We welcome contributions that address how stressors are affecting aquatic ecosystems from tropical latitudes and how those changes are affecting important aspects of the watershed. Stressors to be addressed may include: climate change, changes in land use/land cover, aquaculture or fishing pressures, urbanization, and dam construction, among others. Contributions may address how these stressors alter aquatic food webs, ecosystem productivity, carbon cycling, fisheries or other important aspects of aquatic ecosystems. In addition we welcome talks that address the challenges and present solutions to studying freshwater ecosystems in locations where monitoring and research infrastructure can be sparse.
SS030 Bioluminescent Bays of the Caribbean: Science, Management, Outreach, and Recovery
The Caribbean is home to some of the most spectacular bioluminescent bays in the world. From ‘Fire Lake’ in the Bahamas, renowned more than 150 years ago, to the recently recognized lagoon in the Salt River Bay, St. Croix, bioluminescent bays are rare and unique tropical coastal ecosystems that are not well understood. They are rare, with a total area of in the Caribbean of less than 5 km2. They are unique in that the most prominent member of the plankton is a single species of dinoflagellate, Pyrodinium bahamense, which persists at high levels throughout the year, resulting in dramatic displays of bioluminescence that provide the basis for a healthy ecotourism industry that is important to the local economy. They are also natural laboratories for studying resilience and recovery from storm events. We invite submissions on any aspect of bioluminescent bays from the scientific, outreach, and tourism communities.
SS031 Impacts of (Sub)Mesoscale Ocean Dynamics on Marine Ecosystems
Alice Della Penna, Univ. of Washington - Applied Physics Laboratory (email@example.com)
Alison Chase, University of Maine (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Peter Gaube, Univ. of Washington - Applied Physics Laboratory (email@example.com)
Recent observations and modeling efforts have shown that mesoscale and submesoscale ocean dynamics (defined here as “(sub)mesoscale” and spanning 1-100km and a few days to weeks) play a crucial role in structuring marine ecosystems. Ongoing work has revealed that (sub)mesoscale features structure the spatial distribution of primary production, phytoplankton diversity and community composition, influence zooplankton and micronekton biomass and patchiness, and affect movements and the foraging behavior of top marine predators including sharks and penguins. This session aims at advancing our understanding of how (sub)mesoscale oceanic features affect the productivity, biomass, diversity, and community composition of marine ecosystems. We invite all contributions that investigate the mechanisms and spatial/temporal variability of marine ecosystems at the (sub)mesoscale. Contributions highlighting novel approaches and technologies are particularly encouraged.
SS033 Going deeper: linkages across the oceanic water column
Energy and carbon harvesting in surface waters is expected to mostly sustain life across the ocean. The biological pump encapsulates this idea and predicts strong linkages across water depths through the transfer of sinking particles, nutrients, and energy from the photic to aphotic zone. This could lead to episodic transfer of organisms attached to particles from surface/sunlit waters into the deep dark ocean. However, simultaneous time-series studies of both deep and surface waters, especially over prolonged timescales, are needed to confirm microbial linkages across depths. While it is well established that energy and carbon can be transferred, what happens to cells upon transfer to this new environment is unknown. In this session, we will explore whether seeding of microbes across depths impacts community structuring and potential. Does detection of microbial populations reflect active or important populations, and how does this transfer influence metabolic/biochemical potential in different zones? This session aims to provide answers to these questions, with presenters encouraged to provide evidence for linkages across depth, with special focus on succession and time series dynamics targeting the entire microbial community or specific sub-populations within it. We welcome work using any combination of culture-based techniques,-omics, evolutionary or ecological theory, and modelling.
SS034 Forecasting is the Future: Advancing Methods and Applications of Forecasting in the Aquatic Sciences
How are our freshwater and marine ecosystems going to change in the future? How do human activities affect this trajectory? The application of ecological forecasting – i.e., making predictions about the future state of ecosystems and the services they provide, with fully explicit uncertainties in those predictions – provides much promise for answering these questions and advancing the aquatic sciences beyond hindcasting and retrospective modeling to prediction of future conditions. Due to recent advances in data availability and models, the aquatic research community is poised to increasingly use forecasting techniques to predict hypoxic zones, algal blooms, the availability of drinking water, and other metrics of water quality and quantity, which will greatly inform management actions that improve services for society as a whole. However, there are many challenges in forecasting, such as the need for improvements in ecosystem models, model-data fusion, and the quantification and analysis of uncertainties. This session aims to highlight ecological forecasting in the aquatic sciences and solicits presentations of both methodological and application-based research on forecasting and data assimilation of hydrodynamics, biogeochemistry, and ecology in freshwater and marine ecosystems.
SS035 Exploring microbial interactions and organic matter transformations within oxygen minimum zones
Brett Walker, University of Ottawa (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Karl Kaiser, Texas A&M University Galveston Campus (email@example.com)
Hussain Abdulla, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi (Hussain.Abdulla@tamucc.edu)
Andrew Babbin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Frank Stewart, Georgia Institute of Technology (email@example.com)
Clara Fuchsman, University of Maryland Horn Point Laboratory (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) are mid-depth (~100-800m) ocean features resulting from high export production, enhanced heterotrophy and slow water mass ventilation. OMZs are dominated by microbial communities with diverse heterotrophic (denitrification, sulfate reduction, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction) and autotrophic (anaerobic ammonia oxidation, nitrification, sulfur oxidation, and nitrogen fixation) metabolisms. Whereas OMZs are known to be significant sinks of biologically available nitrogen, via denitrification and anammox processes, far less is known about the biogeochemistry of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM; POM) in these major ocean regions. In particular, the relative impact of chemoautotrophic versus heterotrophic processes on the molecular transformation and cycling of DOM and POM remains unknown in OMZs. Conversely, changes in DOM and POM chemical composition and biological reactivity may also impact the microbial ecology of these systems. In this session, we aim to bring together microbial ecologists, organic geochemists, isotope biogeochemists, and all other scientists who are interested in advancing our understanding of novel linkages between microbial ecology and organic matter biogeochemistry in OMZs. Interdisciplinary studies using innovative metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, isotopic techniques, and in particular novel chemical characterization techniques (i.e. mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, etc.) chemical characterization techniques are particularly welcome.
SS036 Ecological Applications of Earth System Models and Regional Climate Models
Rebecca Asch, East Carolina University (email@example.com)
Darren Pilcher, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sara Rivero-Calle, University of North Carolina - Wilmington (email@example.com)
Johnna Holding, Aarhus University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Earth system models (ESMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) are increasingly utilized by aquatic ecologists to study global environmental change. Over the last decade, these models have greatly enhanced their ability to simulate regional-scale ecosystems by incorporating additional biogeochemical processes and plankton functional groups, increasing their spatial resolution allowing for greater examination of mesoscale processes, and improving their capacity to assimilate data from observing systems. In this session, we invite abstracts that utilize ESMs and RCMs to examine fundamental processes that influence ecosystem function and structure, physical-biological coupling mechanisms, and the ecological impacts of climate change. Presentations addressing either marine or freshwater ecosystems are welcome. We are particularly interested in research showcasing ecologically relevant results from models that will be incorporated into the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report. Experimental, mesocosm, and observational studies whose results can inform model development and parameterization are also germane. Research topics pertinent to this session include, but are not limited to: climate change impacts on organismal abundance, species range, phenology, and community structure; ecological impacts of extreme events; adaptation and acclimation to changing conditions; ecological forecasts; end-to-end ecosystem models; larval dispersal and population connectivity, and; regime shifts and interannual-to-decadal variability in ecosystem structure.
SS037 Terrestrial Materials in Planet Water: Tracking influences along the land-ocean continuum
Anne Deininger, University of Agder (email@example.com)
Allison Myers-Pigg, Memorial University of Newfoundland (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Rachel Sipler, Memorial University of Newfoundland (email@example.com)
Amanda Poste, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The transfer of land-derived materials (e.g. particles, nanoparticles, dissolved species) along the aquatic continuum (catchments, rivers, lakes, estuaries and coastal ocean environments) has, in recent years, become increasingly recognized as a dynamic process impacting global biogeochemical cycles. However, it is still largely uncertain how, when and where terrestrial materials are transferred along the aquatic continuum and thus, their influence on the functioning of various aquatic ecosystems. In this session, we aim to shed light on the transport, fate and effects of terrestrial materials across the aquatic continuum. We seek abstracts that identify trends and variance among and within ecosystems and explore the effects of terrestrial materials on the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic ecosystems. We invite contributions that examine the biological, chemical, and/or physical processes responsible for the transportation (flux) and transformation (composition) of nutrients and carbon across the land-ocean continuum. We also invite cross-disciplinary contributions integrating whole ecosystem dynamics. Especially welcome are contributions from ecosystems where climate change is expected to alter the flux (and cycling) of terrestrial matter in the aquatic environment (e.g. boreal and Arctic systems).
SS038 Real world ecology landscapes – Up-scaling community ecology experiments in aquatic systems
Maria Stockenreiter, Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich (email@example.com)
Patrick Fink, University of Cologne (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Jens Christian Nejstgaard, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland (email@example.com)
Well controlled and highly replicated small-scale laboratory microcosm experiments have been used to relate changes in foodwebs to altered environments (e.g. biodiversity loss, nutrient inputs, climate change etc.). However, their realism is limited and the extrapolation to natural systems is often difficult. The need to minimize these problems has lead to development of experiments on larger scales. Large-scale mesocosm (or enclosure) experiments allow a more realistic setting by including a higher complexity in terms of diversity and trophic levels, and thus potential interactions on the community level. With mesocosm studies, it is possible to experimentally investigate ecosystems at a higher complexity, including several trophic levels, although the replication and control may be more limited compared to small-scale experiments. To support this development, this session will bring together researchers working on various scales in both benthic and pelagic, marine and freshwater environments, on questions related to e.g. biodiversity loss, trait based approaches, climate change etc., to yield a comprehensive overview of current efforts in up-scaling approaches to improve our understanding of changing aquatic ecosystems.
SS039 Effects of storm events on aquatic, coastal, and oceanic environments and ecosystems: from physical processes to food webs
Patricia Chardon-Maldonado, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Jessica Fitzsimmons, Texas A&M University (email@example.com)
Miguel F. Canals Silander, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Lisa Campbell, Texas A&M University (email@example.com)
Simon Geist, Texas A&M University Corpus Christi (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kam-Biu Liu, Louisiana State University (email@example.com)
Thomas Bianchette, University Of Michigan (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Marianne Dietz, Louisiana State University (email@example.com)
Extreme weather events, including hurricanes, are significant perturbations to aquatic ecosystems and coastal environments through a wide array of processes. The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season was one of the most active and destructive in history, with multiple hurricane landfalls in the Caribbean, coastal Gulf of Mexico, and the eastern U.S. shoreline, and record-breaking rainfall and devastation of coastal communities. This session seeks contributions focusing on the effects of hurricanes, including those that occurred in 2017, on a wide spectrum of physical and biogeochemical processes, and ecological and societal impacts, including (but are not limited to): 1) Physical processes (e.g. wind-, wave-, and tide-driven circulation; stratification; sediment transport and morphologic evolution; and the role of coastal barriers in storm protection), 2) Biogeochemical processes (e.g. nutrient availability and cycling; ocean-atmosphere interactions; and contaminant transport), 3) Ecological impacts (e.g. abundance, distribution and community composition of aquatic organisms; food web structure; and ecosystem function), and 4) Societal impacts (e.g. implications for marine policy and health of coastal communities). Examples from aquatic, coastal, and oceanic environments and ecosystems are equally welcome, and we encourage abstracts describing field observations and experiments, numerical and laboratory modeling, model-data assimilation, and theoretical analyses.
SS040 Radionuclides in aqueous systems
Christopher G. Smith, U.S. Geological Survey (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Ken Buesseler, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (email@example.com)
Mark Baskaran, Wayne State University (Baskaran@wayne.edu)
Sylvia Sander, IAEA Environment Laboratories (S.Sander@iaea.org)
Peter Swarzenski, IAEA Environment Laboratories (P.Swarzenski@iaea.org)
Kanchan Maiti, Louisiana State University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
James Waples, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (email@example.com)
Erin Black, Dalhousie University (EBlack@dal.ca)
Radiotracers provide timescales and unique perspectives into some of the most complex processes and mechanisms across the land-ocean aquatic continuum. While basic applications are now fairly well understood, both stable and radioactive isotopes serve as powerful tools to unlock the nuances and complexities of ocean change. This session will bring together the most recent research regarding the utility of stable and radiogenic radiotracers as well as other nuclear techniques to address today’s most pressing coastal and marine challenges, including rapid identification of biotoxins, micro-plastic bioaccumulation, water column deoxygenation, trophic transfer of contaminants, coastal groundwater discharge, and effects of ocean acidification on marine species. We invite presentations discussing novel applications of stable, radiogenic, and anthropogenically-introduced-radioactive tracers as well as other nuclear techniques that attempt to unravel or solve some key aspects of these environmental challenges. We also encourage presenters to focus on the cumulative consequence of multiple environmental stressors on aquatic ecosystems and their biota. Presentations regarding organismal or metabolic effects, using new, interdisciplinary methods to detect stress are highly encouraged. Finally, we invite presentations that attempt to scale-up experimental observations to ecosystem processes, which can lead to more reliable assessments of ocean change. Thanks for submitting!
SS041 The Next Generation: Undergraduate Research in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands *
Maria Barberena-Arias, Universidad del Turabo (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Pedro Maldonado, Universidad Metropolitana (email@example.com)
Lora Harris, U of MD Center for Environmental Science (firstname.lastname@example.org)
James Pierson, U of MD Center for Environmental Science (email@example.com)
The Caribbean Sea region and its complex physical, chemical, geological, and biological systems provide a wealth of opportunity for research and scientific discovery. Undergraduate students from Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, across the United States and internationally have long conducted a tremendous diversity of research across a variety of different programs in the Caribbean. Research projects span from the watershed of the islands to the depths of the Caribbean Sea and into the Atlantic Ocean, and they cover time scales that range from the geologic to seasonal and even to specific weather events. This session is an opportunity for those undergraduate students to present their Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands research efforts in any one of a number of formats, as a three minute lightning talk, a traditional twelve minute oral presentation, or a poster. Participants are encouraged to present their research from any stage of their project, including work that has been proposed and accepted as an undergraduate project, preliminary findings from an ongoing study, or the reporting of results from a completed project. This session provides a valuable forum for career scientists to learn about the tremendous breadth of exciting research occurring in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands and to meet the student scientists who are leading these efforts. Students from outside the Caribbean region will find this session extremely useful for networking with future colleagues in the geosciences and learning about unique research opportunities in Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.
SS042 Long-term ecological studies of freshwater ecosystems in the Greater Caribbean Biogeographic Region
Omar Perez-Reyes, University of Puerto Rico (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Tamara Heartsill-Scalley, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (email@example.com)
Jesús Gómez-Carrasquillo, University of Puerto Rico (firstname.lastname@example.org)
A range of freshwater ecosystems from headwater streams to coastal wetlands provides humans and numerous other species with freshwater resources and ecosystem services essential for their subsistence. The Greater Caribbean Biogeographic Region currently has unique challenges regarding freshwater ecosystems and resources due to increased hurricane frequency and intensity, increasing variability in precipitation patterns and sea-level rise. These environmental changes will likely result in prolonged dry periods and saltwater intrusion. These changes, coupled with increasing human freshwater demand will require innovative adaptive management. In particular, land cover dynamics that are driven solely by economic considerations constrain the functionality of freshwater ecosystems and increase their vulnerability. The ecological insights presented from long-term research of the Greater Caribbean basin will assess aspects of community biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and ecosystems services that acknowledge the essential role of freshwater resources for humans. We invite contributions that present research on all freshwater systems, including streams, rivers, riparian zones, seasonal systems, coastal marshes, mangroves, and wetlands.
SS043 Beyond the Numbers: Strategies for Inclusive Practices Across the Aquatic Sciences *
This session aims to highlight education and outreach concepts in the aquatic sciences that move the diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) needle beyond numerical targets to achieve a culture of DEI at larger and systemic scales.
SS044 Connecting watershed characteristics to fluvial exports and in-stream biogeochemical processes
Terrestrial exports of water and solutes to fluvial networks, and ultimately coastal margins, is controlled by watershed characteristics and state factors. These characteristics range from gradients of lithology, topography, vegetation and climate, as well as anthropogenic forcings including agriculture, urbanization, and restoration efforts. Collectively the interaction and interdependence among these state factors determines both water quantity and quality for communities and downstream receiving ecosystems. Here we invite abstracts that examine the relationship between landscape characteristics and watershed exports and in-stream and fluvial biogeochemical processes. We welcome studies that include experimental work, the assessment of long-term data records, and novel modeling and statistical approaches. While we look forward to presentations from across biomes and ecosystems we especially encourage contributions from the Caribbean and tropics.
SS045 Drone Remote Sensing for Aquatic Sciences: Challenges and Successes
Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) or "Drones", represent a new type of remote sensing platform that enables users to control how, where, and when geospatial imagery is acquired. As drones become more affordable and easier to use, these autonomous systems are revolutionizing spatial analysis through GIS and remote sensing techniques. New challenges and opportunities for aquatic sciences research become evident as more people use them for fine-scale mapping and change detection, monitoring HABs, assessing water quality and eutrophication, benthic characterization, bathymetry, pollution, and examining ecological phenomena at high spatial-temporal resolutions. This session addresses the challenges and opportunities that drones bring to studies of coastal and inland water bodies, areas where the coarse spatial and temporal resolution of satellite remote sensing imagery is frequently inadequate. As smaller and lighter multispectral, hyperspectral, LiDAR, and other sensors become available, the use of drones for remote sensing will increase in the aquatic sciences.
SS048 Basic and Applied Research for Resource Management and Environmental Compliance
Resource management relies on the best available science to seek alternatives to support the resiliency of natural systems. Consequently, resource management helps protect the health of the environment and humans. This session provides a venue for the discussion of work that provide different alternatives to evaluate the state of the environment whereas under natural or anthropogenic pressures. Among others, works addressing environmental concerns, the impact or lack of human activities, and projects linked to blue economy alternatives, new methods and observation approaches are welcome. Also, we invite to present works geared to validate environmental compliance standards, measure the effectiveness of monitoring programs, and advances of emerging technology and findings regarding the effectiveness of environmental quality parameters and standards in the protection of environmental resources. Successful strategies for the design, implementation, and evaluation of environmental compliance programs through study cases discussions are particularly welcome.
SS050 Improving Coral Reef Resilience with Transformational Science
Emily Twigg, National Academies (email@example.com)
Susan Roberts, National Academies (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Stephen Palumbi, Stanford University (email@example.com)
Tali Vardi, NOAA Fisheries (on contract from ECS) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Deteriorating environmental conditions threaten the continued survival and functioning of coral reefs globally. Mass bleaching events, ocean acidification, and widespread disease outbreaks are increasing in prominence, compounded by persistent local stressors. Motivated by these future prospects, innovative approaches for improving restoration and accelerating coral resilience have been emerging in a variety of fields, including genomics, engineering, and ecology. A study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine is underway to synthesize the state of science on these approaches and create a framework for assessing their risks, benefits, and feasibility. An interim report summarizing current research will be produced by the study committee in 2018. This session will expand on this topic by inviting presentations that discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with preserving reefs in the future, with a particular focus on the state of science, and the risks, benefits, and feasibility of implementing new and innovative approaches.
SS051 New views on the biological transformation of metals in the marine environment
Randelle Bundy, University of Washington (email@example.com)
Shane Hogle, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Katherine Heal, University of Washington (email@example.com)
Kristen Buck, University of South Florida (firstname.lastname@example.org)
P. Dreux Chappell, Old Dominion University (email@example.com)
Recent results from the GEOTRACES program and other large-scale oceanographic surveys have provided compelling new insights into the distributions, chemical speciation, sources, and sinks of trace metals. The bio-active trace metals such as iron, copper, cobalt, zinc, nickel and manganese are particularly compelling because they influence surface ocean primary productivity, deep ocean carbon storage, and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in our modern earth system and over geologic timescales. There is still much to learn about the regeneration of bioactive metals from organic matter, the influences of biological ligand production, and the impacts of trace metal bioavailability in the ocean. Insights from recent biogeochemical studies have raised new questions related to the biogeochemical processes impacting the distributions of trace metals, and novel methodological approaches are now revealing the molecular mechanisms that connect major bio-active trace metal cycles to the physiology, ecology, and evolution of marine microorganisms. However, these techniques have only begun to be coupled with the wealth of existing geochemical knowledge afforded by existing large-scale programs. Here we welcome submissions relating to the cycling of bio-active trace metals, particularly those using innovative techniques and novel modeling approaches. We also welcome studies from across temporal and spatial scales, as well as experimental and modeling studies that bridge biological and geochemical cycling of trace elements. We hope this session will provide a forum for diverse scientific perspectives on the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals in the ocean.
SS052 Carbon cycling within coastal wetlands and water bodies
Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are fundamental building blocks for life. In the current era of global change the cycling of these elements has been significantly perturbed due to, in large part, anthropogenic activities. These imbalances affect all aspects of the Earth system. For instance, increasing emissions of greenhouse gases (both carbon, e.g., CO2, and nitrogen, e.g., N2O, based) have been directly correlated to rising atmospheric temperatures. Anthropogenic disturbances accelerate rates of primary production and alter the trophic balance in many ecosystems, including the eutrophication of inland and coastal water bodies catalyzed by microbial activity, an acceleration of algal growth, and a decrease in biodiversity. In this session, we invite contributions which characterize microbial structure and function of coastal ecosystems, evaluate biogeochemical activity, and/or constrain the biogeochemical budget of carbon and nitrogen in Earth’s various reservoirs, especially their global transformations under climatic and anthropogenic pressures. We welcome studies focusing on advances in analytical techniques and model-based approaches.
SS054 Remote Sensing of Water Quality and Quantity
Water stress, which is pressure on both water quality and quantity, has become a worldwide concern, especially with the growing human population and expanding agricultural and industrial related activities. Limited water supplies intensify these concerns. Practical water resources management, as to ensure reliable water supplies, requires understanding of the spatial and temporal variability in water color, temperature, and quantity. Remote sensing is an efficient monitoring tool that can address information needs and data gaps in water stress management. The technology allows for the collection of accurate and inexpensive data at increasingly improved temporal resolutions, and at spatial scales extending from inland waters to the open ocean. Contributions to this session are invited on all aspects of remote sensing of water quality and quantity (including data collection, algorithm development, and applications) employing satellite, airborne, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and ground-based platforms. We particularly welcome presentations employing deep learning algorithms and hyperspectral/multispectral sensors for research and/or operational use.
SS055 The 2017 Hurricane Season: Challenges, Innovations, and Resiliency in Formal and Informal Education
Michele Guannel, University of the Virgin Islands (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Howard Forbes, University of the Virgin Islands (email@example.com)
Jarvon Stout, University of the Virgin Islands (firstname.lastname@example.org)
During the unprecedented Atlantic hurricane season of 2017, intense hurricanes (including Harvey, Irma, and Maria) devastated areas of the United States mainland and territories. Particularly within geographically isolated regions such as Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands, much of the immediate hurricane response was conducted by residents of these islands, showing a strong need to bolster disaster preparedness and related STEM skills within vulnerable and isolated communities. The catastrophic 2017 hurricanes also created opportunities to integrate real-life, culturally relevant impacts of ocean-atmospheric interactions into classrooms and informal learning spaces, even as educators struggled with severe damage to schools and their broader communities. In this session, we invite presentations from practitioners and researchers related to K-16 curricula developed and implemented in classrooms linking hurricane impacts, response, and recovery to course content; incorporation of students’ lived experiences into formal and informal learning; citizen science, outreach, or other education projects related to hurricane impacts on marine ecosystems; and identification of preparedness education and STEM skills needed for improved disaster response. We also invite discussion of how educational institutions have been impacted by these natural disasters, with an eye towards improved disaster preparedness, awareness, and resiliency within our educational systems.
SS057 Eastern boundary upwelling systems in a changing ocean: recent insights and future perspectives
Francisco Chavez, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) (email@example.com)
Carlos Henriquez, Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Igor Fernandez, Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO) (email@example.com)
Johana Medellín, Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Natalia Osma, Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO) (email@example.com)
Paulina Aguayo, Millennium Institute of Oceanography (IMO) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, providing relevant ecological and economic services to society. Even though the mechanistic processes governing the upwelling dynamics are reasonably well constrained, we still lack the capability to accurately predict how they will evolve under different greenhouse warming scenarios. Given the inherent variability of EBUS, it may be expected a certain resilience to natural environmental stresses; however, their vulnerability to anthropogenic climate forcing remains uncertain. This session seeks to synthesize recent observational data of fundamental processes in EBUS functioning over different temporal and spatial scales, to detect common trends between the four major upwelling areas and to assess their role within the global climate. All this information will help improve the ability of coupled climate models to anticipate changes in the physical and biogeochemical properties of these productive marine ecosystems. On this basis, we invite contributions which aim to provide insight into the EBUS dynamics in a multiple-stressor world and to identify their biogeochemical responses to global change phenomena, from molecular to ecosystem scales. Integrative cross-disciplinary studies that embrace global and local processes in a comparative approach are particularly welcome.
SS058 Brave new world: the ecology of highly impacted waterbodies
Eutrophication, flow modification, invasive species, and novel contaminants are among the top threats to aquatic ecosystem structure and function. Due to their anthropogenic causes, these threats are prevalent in the same ecosystems we rely on most heavily for services such as drinking water, crop irrigation, fisheries, and recreation. Managing these problems has been challenging because waterbodies may respond in unpredictable and novel ways to these unprecedented pressures. We suggest that the unpredictable nature of highly impacted aquatic ecosystems may be due in part to our paradigms being developed in "pristine" or relatively unimpacted ecosystems. In this session we invite authors to explore when and why our current understanding of aquatic ecosystem function falters in extreme conditions, particularly in waterbodies that are highly impacted by human activities. Specifically, we welcome authors to contribute research from any aquatic ecosystem that focuses on the unique ecological functioning of highly impacted ecosystems. By examining when and why “classic” theories fail to predict ecosystem dynamics, we will identify new research directions to improve our understanding of heavily impacted systems.
SS059 Socio-ecological research for actionable sustainable solutions: examples, perspectives and challengeS
Nicolas F. St-Gelais, Université de Montréal (email@example.com)
Jean-Olivier Goyette, Université de Montréal (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Julie Talbot, Université de Montréal (email@example.com)
Michelle McCrackin, Stockholm University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Roxane Maranger, Université de Montréal (email@example.com)
In order to make informed development choices to protect aquatic ecoservices now and into the future, ecosystem science must matter in decision making. However, the timing between the identification of a major environmental problem to the implementation of an actionable solution based on the best available science is 25 years on average, which is far too long. How do we close this gap? As aquatic scientists we must play a more active role in this process by creating actionable knowledge products in a timely manner that enables better scientifically informed management and development decisions. Yet there is often a mismatch or a misunderstanding between the creation of these products, the actual stakeholder needs or the real-life challenge of practitioners. In this session, we seek a diversity of case studies and stories on how science was made more applicable to address wicked environmental challenges. For example, how do we reconcile the food-water-energy nexus? How to we manage development and natural resource exploration to protect water quality and quantity in developed and developing countries? We also want to assess if there are specific patterns to success as well as what traps should be avoided to efficiently close this gap.
SS060 The advent of sampling biological processes in aquatic systems using autonomous platforms
Oscar Schofield, Rutgers University (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Josh Kohut, Rutgers University New Brunswick (email@example.com)
Craig Lee, Applied Physics Laboratory (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kelly Benoit Bird, MBARI (email@example.com)
Mark Moline, University of Delaware (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Autonomous underwater vehicles have undergone significant advances in the recent decade. These advances have been critical in providing insights into a wider range of critical physical processes in the ocean, however their impact on biological oceanography has been more muted. This is changing, as a range of new sensors is providing a wide range of new capabilities to measure biological processes. New capabilities span from bio-optical tools capable of assessing the physiology of autotrophs, multi-frequency acoustics that can resolve secondary and higher trophic level abundance, to drone video footage mapping the distribution of marine mammals. These new sensors coupled to autonomous platforms will usher in new opportunities to study ecological dynamics in the field. This session will focus on assessing the platforms and sensors that are now available to the biological research community. Additionally, we will focus on examples that demonstrate the range of processes that could be studied using autonomous approaches and highlight new research opportunities in the coming years.
SS062 Mixotrophic protists: An underrated majority in marine and freshwater ecosystems?
Mia Bengtsson, University of Greifswald (email@example.com)
Robert Fischer, WasserCluster Lunz (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Robert Ptacnik, WasserCluster Lunz (email@example.com)
Stella Berger, IGB Berlin (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Jens Nejstgaard, IGB Berlin (email@example.com)
Susanne Wilken, University of Amsterdam (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Mixotrophic protists combine phototrophy with phagotrophy and can be found in most protist groups, including both organisms traditionally considered “phytoplankton” and “microzooplankton”. Accumulating evidence suggests that mixotrophic protists can represent the dominant planktonic functional group(s) in oceans and lakes. However, the increasing awareness regarding the common occurrence of mixotrophy and the apparent importance of this diverse mode of nutrition is in clear contrast to our conceptual understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving their success. The considerable genetic and metabolic diversity among mixotrophs poses challenges in identifying mixotrophs, quantifying their contribution to grazing and primary production and assigning relevant functional traits under natural conditions. Hence, traditional food web- and biogeochemical models fail to incorporate the role of mixotrophy on trophic transfer and carbon- and nutrient fluxes. In this session, we aim to bring together research on the fascinating lives of mixotrophic protists, including laboratory and mesocosm experiments, field studies as well as modeling efforts to assess their population dynamics, physiology, role in species interactions and their impact on microbial communities, food webs and biogeochemical fluxes in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.
SS063 Ocean, Coastal, and Freshwater Acidification: Research and Education *
Robert Chen, University of Massachusetts Boston (email@example.com)
Shannon Davis, University of Massachusetts Boston (Shannon.Davis002@umb.edu)
Joseph Salisbury, University of New Hampshire, Ocean Processes Analyses Lab (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are driving increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in water bodies and lowering pH. Variability and extremes in pH are driven by a number of processes including algal blooms, temperature extremes, physical mixing, and storm events. Acidification of water bodies is having a host of impacts on ecosystems small and large. However, acidification and its potential impacts are not well-understood by the general public. This session invites presentations on current research on ocean, coastal, or freshwater acidification: its measurement, modeling, and/or ecological impacts. It also invites presentations on education and outreach activities that effectively communicate the science and impacts of acidification of aquatic systems. Educationally oriented presentations are allowed as a second submitted abstract by any lead author. Research and education presentations focused on any aspect of aquatic acidification will be interspersed so that research and education activities will be better integrated.
SS065 Turning the Lights on for Deep-Sea Ecosystems in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and US SE Atlantic
James Murphy, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (email@example.com)
Amanda Netburn, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Peter Etnoyer, NOAA Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (email@example.com)
Shirley Pomponi, FAU - Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (SPomponi@fau.edu)
Caitlin Adams, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kasey Cantwell, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (email@example.com)
The deep sea (>250 meters) contains a vast cache of biological, chemical, and geological resources. However, the aperture of current deep-sea exploration is small, leaving much of the deep ocean poorly described. Recent and ongoing exploration in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and waters off of the U.S. Southeast Atlantic coast, such as the Southeast Deep Sea Coral Initiative (SEDCI) and the Atlantic Seafloor Partnership for Integrated Research and Exploration (ASPIRE), have yielded novel insights into biogeographic patterning, organisms new to science, and areas of high biodiversity. Technological limitations continue to challenge the ability of researchers and managers to characterize large areas of the seabed and water column. Many basic questions remain unanswered for most deep-sea communities in terms of abundances, distributions, life histories, connectivity, population dynamics, and species interactions. This session seeks to attract presentations illuminating advancements in deep-sea exploration within this region, including seafloor and water column characterization, novel applications of technologies, and investigations of geographic connectivity. Information presented during this session will facilitate improved knowledge of deep-sea resources and direct attention toward successful methodologies with potential to advance full ocean characterization.
SS066 Large rivers of the world as pipes, chimneys and reactors
Francois Guillemette, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Jean-François Lapierre, University of Quebec at Montreal (email@example.com)
Thomas Bianchi, University of Florida (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Suzanne Tank, University of Alberta (email@example.com)
Large rivers of the world connect continents to ocean through highly heterogeneous and dynamic networks of ecosystems. More than passive conduits that transport terrestrial (natural or human) material to coastal waters, large rivers sediment, transform or emit globally significant amounts of carbon, nutrients, and contaminants. The relative degree to which these processes occur varies tremendously within and across large rivers, and this may be explained by contrasting land use, river hydrology and physical structure, catchment geology or climate, among other factors. How can we better understand large rivers ecology and biogeochemistry under rapid environmental changes? Are there consistent patterns within and across rivers from the equator to the poles allowing for broader understanding and forecasting? How is YOUR river behaving in this sea of new environmental pressures? Come find out!
SS067 Microbial Phototrophy: Interactions and Impacts on Nutrient Cycling
The sun’s energy supports the surface ocean’s ecosystem, from microbes to whales, and feeds a large fraction of the benthos. The impact of marine microbial photoautotrophs is felt beyond the ocean as they fix more than half of the organic carbon on the planet and produce half of its oxygen. The exciting field of phototrophy has greatly evolved over the last two decades, teaching us that microbial metabolisms are truly complex. For instance, mixotrophy is widespread among most eukaryotic and prokaryotic photoautotrophs. Furthermore, we now know that most heterotrophic bacteria, the most abundant organisms in seawater, are also phototrophs using proteorhodopsin or bacteriochlorophyll to harvest light energy. To complicate matters, phototrophs rely on important interactions among themselves and other microbes, exchanging inorganic nutrients, co-enzymes, amino acids and their precursors, and different forms of carbon (organic and inorganic). In this session, we invite contributions that examine microbial phototrophic metabolisms, their ecological distribution, microbial interactions involving phototrophs, and how these impact our understanding of aquatic elemental cycles in lakes, estuaries, and in the ocean. We welcome experimental, observational, and modeling studies based in lab and/or field results.
SS069 Climate adaptation in aquatic and human systems
Andrew Pershing, Gulf of Maine Research Institute (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Nicholas Record, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences (email@example.com)
Katherine Mills, Gulf of Maine Research Institute (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The global climate system has entered a period of rapid change. Much of our understanding of dynamical systems and many resource management policies rely on the notion of a steady state, so there is an urgent need to understand how systems respond to rapid changes and non-equilibrium dynamics. This session aims to advance our understanding of adaptation to rapidly changing climate, both for aquatic ecosystems, and for the human systems connected to them. Studies that describe, either through observations or theory, how ecosystems respond to trends in temperature or other environmental drivers are especially valuable. We are also seeking examples of how humans have tried to adapt to these changes, through changes in management, policy, or other behaviors, either successfully or unsuccessfully. Finally, we are interested in monitoring and modeling approaches, including citizen observations and short and long-term forecasts, that can support successful adaptation strategies to a rapidly changing climate.
SS070 Engaging Underrepresented Students in Ocean Science to Promote a Diverse and Inclusive Workforce *
Andrea Johnson, National Science Foundation (email@example.com)
Todd Christenson, NOAA Office of Education (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Corey Garza, California State University, Monterey Bay (email@example.com)
The need to increase representation by individuals of all backgrounds in STEM fields, including Ocean Science, has been long recognized. Despite this realization, and the existence of numerous programs to address this gap, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, American Indians, Native Hawaiians and Native Pacific Islanders remain underrepresented in STEM. Although degree completions by African American students in the ocean sciences have remained largely flat, according to Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data System (IPEDS), one encouraging trend is that degree completions in Oceanography and Marine Science by Hispanic students have increased in the past decade. Hispanic students obtaining PhDs in Oceanography doubled from 2016 to 2017 and Hispanic students with bachelor’s degrees in the marine sciences (Marine Science, Marine Biology, and Fisheries) have steadily increased from 1995 to 2016. Meanwhile, degree completions by African American students in marine sciences represented approximately 2% of the total from 2002-2017, significantly below their representation in the population. However, it is clear that Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) continue to play a vital role in educating underrepresented students in ocean sciences. This session will focus on the following questions:
- What are reasons underlying degree completion trends in Ocean Sciences by underrepresented students?
- What is the role of MSIs relative to ‘majority’ institutions at graduating students in ocean sciences? How can they be further engaged to foster greater diversity in ocean science?
- What approaches have proven to be effective at fostering persistence in ocean science degree programs by underrepresented (URM) students? Might these have implications for other STEM programs?
- To what extent are URM students taking advantage of federal funding opportunities (e.g., Hollings/EPP scholarships, REU, GRFP) to further their career?
- What are the workforce outcomes? Are URM ocean science degree graduates finding employment in this area?
- What different perspectives do URM students/professionals bring to the field?
SS072 Methods in Aquatic Science Education *
Paul Kemp, ASLO (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Robert Chen, University of Massachusetts Boston (email@example.com)
Cayelan Carey, Virginia Polytechnical Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Nicole Poulton, Bigelow Lab for Ocean Sciences (email@example.com)
New methods for teaching and communicating ocean science, environmental science, and limnology have been recently developed and evaluated in both formal and informal settings. However, scientists, formal teachers, and informal educators rarely share their methods widely through peer-reviewed literature, especially in the aquatic sciences. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods is actively encouraging submissions of manuscripts reporting on the development, testing, and implementation of methods in aquatic science education. In this session, we will explore recent and ongoing methodological developments, emphasizing design, development, and formal evaluation of best practices. The scope of this session is wide-ranging. Examples: undergraduate and graduate academic education; public education and outreach; effective use of citizen scientists; experiential and project-based learning; multi-cultural education; media literacy; career preparation; and preparation for science leadership. This session is intended to evolve into an L&O: Methods special issue on "Methods in Aquatic Science Education" planned for 2020.
SS073 The challenge of coral reef rehabilitation in the context of climate change
Edwin Hernandez-Delgado, Sociedad Ambiente Marino (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Samuel E. Suleiman-Ramos, Sociedad Ambiente Marino (email@example.com)
Michael Nemeth, NOAA Restoration Center (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Nilda Jimenez, Department of Natural Environmental Resources (email@example.com)
Coral reefs have undergone significant decline over the last decades due to a combination of human and natural factors, including climate change. Therefore, a burst of low-tech, in situ coral farming strategies, ex situ state-of the-art coral propagation efforts, and multiple small-scale coral restoration initiatives with variable success have emerged over the last two decades. However, reef restoration has become increasingly challenging mostly as the result of increasing reef mediocrity and threats from climate change. The proposed session is aimed at addressing many of such novel challenges, including: 1. The development of adaptive strategies of reef rehabilitation in the context of mediocre and novel reef ecosystems; 2. How to cope with potentially increased magnitude of hurricanes; 3. Restore wave buffering role of shallow coastal reefs; 4. Expansion of spatial/temporal scales of restoration interventions; 5. Stabilization/restoration of hurricane-generated moving rubble fields; 6. How to tackle down the decline of slow-growing, massive coral functional groups; 7. How to incorporate demographic and wave models as decision-making tools in coral reef rehabilitation; 8. Address connectivity issues; 9. Increase community-based and NGO participation in restoration efforts; 10. Systematization and sharing of lessons learned; 11. Fundraising and operational sustainability strategies, and other poorly addressed topics.
AS001 Success through Science: Using limnology and oceanography to tackle difficult management questions *
Fundamental research in limnology and oceanography improves our understanding of aquatic systems and often can provide the basis for sound environmental management. This session will bring together evidence of success in science, highlighting both ongoing successes and future opportunities/challenges for aquatic sciences. The impact of human activities on the earth is a central concern for our society. Focused long-term research, advances in technology, and innovative applications of novel results from our scientific community have led to recognition of emerging threats as well as the successful reversal of many significant environmental problems. Work on topics such as climate change, microplastics, acidic deposition, and eutrophication provides ample examples of remaining challenges as well as successes in the management of lakes, rivers, estuaries, and oceans. Presentations will highlight innovation, best practices and the value of long-term observations at local, regional and global scales for the management and better stewardship of our freshwater and marine resources.
AS002 Human and Social Dimensions - Research Meets Management: Where and How the Rubber Hits the Road (and Gets Traction) *
Lucinda Johnson, University of Minnesota Duluth (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Cynthia Hagley, University of Minnesota Duluth (email@example.com)
Too many times well-meaning academics with great ideas spend their (and their graduate student’s) time and agency funds to develop a solution to one of society’s many problems only to find their research products are never even considered for implementation, often because end-users weren’t involved soon enough. “Co-creation” and “co-production” describe the process by which scientists and stakeholders collaborate to jointly define the problem, design the project, and develop useful end products. This session invites? case studies that highlight successful examples, lessons learned from the less successful projects, and best practices that ensure scientific rigor, successful integration into policies and practices, and ultimately solutions to some of society’s gnarly problems, such as eutrophication, harmful algae blooms, stormwater treatment, beach health, and invasive species management.
AS005 Extreme events
Elizabeth Minor, University of Minnesota Duluth (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Carmen Aguilar, University of Wisconsin Madison (email@example.com)
Bill McDowell, University of New Hampshire (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Extreme climate events (ECEs) occur throughout the US and much of the world. Both the frequency and intensity of events such as tropical storms and hurricanes, droughts, extreme warm periods, floods, ice storms, and tornadoes are increasing. The individual and cumulative effects of these ECEs on the long-term dynamics of aquatic environments are uncertain. This session will focus on the responses of aquatic systems to ECEs, such as changes in material fluxes (sediment, nutrients, organic matter, and trace elements) from watersheds following floods, hurricanes, and fires; downstream impacts of continental processes on coastal margins and the coastal ocean; effects of droughts, floods, and saltwater incursion on trace gas production from wetlands; cascading effects of disturbance events on higher trophic levels.