Plenary Addresses and Award Recipent Talks

Sunday, 19 June

Monday, 20 June

Tuesday, 21 June

Wednesday, 22 June

Thursday, 23 June

Friday, 24 June

Introduction of ASLO President
Carlos M. Duarte, ASLO 2005 Summer Meeting Co-Chair, Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Spain
Sunday, 19 June 2005, 18:00 - 18:45
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presidential Address: Homage to Santo Iago (St. James) or Why is There So Much Carbon in Freshwaters?
Jonathan J. Cole, ASLO President, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, USA
Sunday, 19 June 2005, 18:00 - 18:45
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: Because liquid freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, freshwater ecosystems (lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) are not usually considered as important components in element cycles at global or even regional scales. Recent multiple lines of evidence suggest that freshwaters are disproportionately significant to the C balance of their watersheds, and important at a global scale to current rates of organic C sequestration. The magnitudes of net remineralization, burial, and export from and within freshwaters can be large in comparison to net C sequestration of the land-based components of the watershed. The sign of the net C balance sheet of a region may be reversed when the aquatic components are considered in this context. I will provide a conceptual framework to show the ways in which freshwater ecosystems influence C budgets, review examples from my own work and recent literature in which aspects of this framework have been addressed, and suggest some future research directions that this review reveals.

Biography: Following a Ph.D. in 1982 from Cornell in Aquatic Ecology, ASLO President Jonathan “Jon” Cole moved to Woods Hole where he did post-doctoral work both at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and at The Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biological Laboratory. In 1984, Cole was one of the first scientists to be hired by the then brand-new Institute of Ecosystem Studies where he moved through the ranks of assistant scientist, associate scientist, and in 1997, scientist. From 1984-1994, Cole helped to administer the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study as its associate site coordinator and executive director of its Scientific Advisory Committee. Cole has been a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science since 1996, and board member of the International Water Academy since 1999.

Cole served on the ASLO Board of Directors from 1994-1997, and was on the Editorial Board of Limnology and Oceanography from 1987-1990. Cole served as an associate editor for Limnology and Oceanography from 1998- 2001, and for Hydrobiologia since 1996. Cole has participated in many ASLO committees and initiatives and was the co-chair of the 1997 Aquatic Sciences Meeting in Santa Fe. He has been an ASLO member since 1976.

Cole works at the interface between microbiology and biogeochemistry and has been interested in this area in both marine and freshwater ecosystems, concentrating on lake and riverine systems during the past decade. Cole has found particularly rewarding, studies, which compare processes between marine and freshwaters. More recently, Cole has been trying to constrain estimates of microbial respiration by measurements of whole-ecosystem metabolism and gas flux and is finding that terrestrially derived organic matter often supports net heterotrophy in lakes in rivers.

Eulogy to Dr. Robert Wetzel
Gene E. Likens, President and Director, G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair in Ecology, Institute of Ecosystems Studies, USA
Sunday, 19 June 2005, 18:45 – 19:00
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Opening Ceremony
Carlos M. Duarte, Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Spain and Emilio Fernández, Universidad de Vigo, Spain
ASLO 2005 Summer Meeting Co-Chairs
Monday, 20 June 2005, 09:30 – 10:15

The Opening Ceremony has been planned to introduce attendees to Santiago. The conference co-chairs will begin with opening remarks regarding the week ahead and introduce Spanish dignitaries.

Recipient of the G. Evelyn Hutchinson Award Talk: Digital Elevationology for the Copepodologist
Mary E. Power, University of California at Berkeley, USA
Tuesday, 21 June 2005, 09:00 – 09:30
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: Ecologists have pondered the effects of landscape pattern on ecological process for most of the short history of our field. We have also been puzzled by the inconsistent relationships between energy flow and population limitation in food webs. New mapping, sensing, and visualization technologies, along with increasingly available tracers, are providing ecologists with glimpses of natural scales of food web interactions and ecosystem fluxes, as well as unprecedented data on environmental variation. If combined iteratively with field manipulations that reveal key but hidden mechanisms, these mapping technologies may help to clarify the links between energy flow and species interactions, as these change across real landscapes with changes in environmental conditions that Hutchinson envisioned as axes of organisms' Fundamental Niche.

Biography: Mary E. Power is the John and Mary Gompertz Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California at Berkeley. She received her B.A. from Brown University, her M.S. from the Boston University Marine Program in Woods Hole, and her Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Washington. Her research foci are food webs and river and watershed ecology. She has studied river and watershed food webs in Panama, Papua New Guinea, the Ozark Mountains, Oklahoma prairies, and Northern California. She uses field experiments and watershed scale surveys to study the impacts of species on food webs, and of environmental conditions on species interactions that affect food web structure. Her group also studies cross-habitat fluxes, specifically, the use of river-derived insect production by terrestrial consumers in watersheds (spiders, lizards, bats) and the population and ecosystem consequences of this subsidy. With collaborators in biogeochemistry and the earth sciences, she is currently expanding her research to better understand spatial scales of food web interactions and ecosystem fluxes as these vary down river drainage networks. Since 1987, she has been faculty manager of the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, a 5000 redwood-Douglas fir forest ecosystem in the University of California Natural Reserve System. She has served as a group leader for a Presidential Western Water Policy Advisory Commission, as chair of the University-Wide Advisory Committee for the University of California Natural Reserve System, as a member of the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center Peer Review Panel, and on the Scientific Advisory Board for the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. She currently sits on the Board of Directors for the California Nature Conservancy, on the Executive Committee of the NSF National Center for Earth Surface Dynamics, and is the first Director of the California Biodiversity Center, an organized research unit that fosters collaborations among Berkeley's Natural History Museums and Natural History Field Stations.

Plenary Address: Aquaculture of XXI Century and Its Challenges for Aquatic Sciences and Ecosystem Management
Doris Soto, Campus Pelluco Universidad Austral, Chile
Tuesday, 21 June 2005, 09:30 – 10:10
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: The massive expansion of aquaculture during the past and present century around the globe is creating parallel opportunities, conflicts, and challenges to those once developed for agriculture, both for the industrialized northern hemisphere countries and the developing countries in Asia and the southern hemisphere. Large amounts of fishmeal are moving from the Humboldt Current to Europe and China for the aquaculture making. But vegetable proteins also are starting to replace fish meal for carnivorous fish such as salmon and large extensions of soy bean and lupin are planted replacing traditional agriculture and grasslands in South America; "the subsidies of agriculture to aquaculture". Intensive aquaculture is supplying large amounts of nutrients to coastal zones around the world and the main challenge is to manage those inputs in such ways to enhance nutrient cycling and ecosystemic functioning being a real challenge to decide how much biodiversity we can afford to lose, but at the same time realizing that unproductive ecosystems are increasing productivity and diversity. Little scientific exchange is taking place between the aquaculture world and the aquatic sciences world. Could we, from the oceanography and limnology side, give sustainable management options to aquaculture? Certainly we cannot stop aquaculture and thus we have a challenge ahead, which should be explored and faced properly.

Biography: Doris Soto received her undergraduate degree from the Faculty of Sciences University of Chile in Santiago in 1975, and started working at the same department as a laboratory assistant. In 1981, Soto obtained a Chilean government fellowship to pursue a Ph.D. in Ecology in the Joint Doctoral Program between San Diego State University and University of California at Davis. She did her dissertation research on zooplankton ecology in San Diego under the advice of Dr. Stuart Hurlbert where she learned the hard way about "true replication". She went back to Chile after finishing the Ph.D. in 1987, and moved to Puerto Montt in 1990, to work as professor at Facultad de Pesqueras y Oceanografa of the Austral University in Puerto Montt, the lake and fjord region in Southern Chile. In addition, she has been adjunct scientist at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, since 1999.

Since 1990, she has been doing research on salmon farming environmental management and nutrient cycling after farms. She has also done extensive research to evaluate the effect of escaped salmon and trout on aquatic environments. Her research has contributed to scientific knowledge and also to decision-making through the aquaculture environmental regulation program set up by the Chilean government. Since 2002, she has been a senior scientist in a Chilean Millennium project evaluating the forest ecosystemic services to aquatic systems" (FORECOS). She has published numerous scientific papers and reports and directed undergraduate and graduate students.

In May 2005, she moved to Rome where she accepted a position as senior fisheries officer at the FIRI (Inland water resources and Aquaculture Service) at the FAO headquarters (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), where she hopes to put to practice an ecosystemic perspective to aquaculture management.

Recipient of the Raymond L. Lindeman Award Talk: Multi-Faceted In Situ Controls on Silica and Carbon Cycling from Diatoms
Kay Bidle, Rutgers University, USA
Wednesday, 22 June 2005, 09:00 – 09:30
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: Diatom productivity is largely responsible for downward fluxes of biogenic silica (opal) and organic matter in the global ocean. Elucidation of the mechanisms that couple the relative fates of diatom Si and C within the water column is critical to both calibrate opal preservation in paleoproductivity reconstruction and interpret the role of diatoms in the biological carbon pump. Significant silicon regeneration, via dissolution of biogenic silica, supports a large fraction of diatom productivity as an adventitious consequence of bacterial colonization and hydrolytic attack on diatom cell walls. Biochemical strategies employed by bacteria effectively denude silica of its organic coating and hasten its dissolution, making them a critical mechanism of both Si and C diagenesis. Inherent variability of in situ regeneration rates implicates multifaceted in situ controls on bacterial hydrolysis of diatom cells. Among these, temperature exerts a profound control on the coupling of biogenic silica and organic carbon preservation. An empirical relationship for C and Si regeneration, incorporating both biological and chemical drivers, revealed that low temperature dramatically intensifies the selective regeneration of organic matter by marine bacteria and leads to a gradual increase in the Si:C preservation ratio. Si to C coupling in pelagic waters will depend on factors that couple diatom biomass to the microbial loop. Intriguingly, marine bacteria collected from both temperate and permanently-cold oceanic regimes, along with their respective hydrolytic enzymes, appear to be operating sub-optimally at in situ temperatures, with a raising of seawater temperatures leading to enhanced coupling of Si: C regeneration and reduced burial. Selective Si:C preservation should help to interpret and to model variable Si and C sinking fluxes and spatial patterns of opal accumulation in oceanic systems with different temperature regimes.

Biography: Bidle received his Ph.D. in 2001 from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, where he examined interactions between marine bacteria and diatoms; a class of eukaryotic phytoplankton that often dominates oceanic primary productivity.

Bidle is currently an assistant research professor at the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University. His research interests include microbial ecology, phytoplankton physiology and mortality, molecular evolution and ecology, biogeochemistry, ecosystem processes, and the structure and function of microbial food webs. He is specifically interested in linking key biogeochemical processes to molecular diversity, including factors that shape the availability and relative coupling of phytoplankton to the microbial loop. Current investigations use molecular biology and biochemistry to elucidate cellular responses of phytoplankton to physiological stress or viral infection, leading to massive mortality, and to assess the molecular and biochemical diversity of bacterial ectohydrolytic enzymes.

Plenary Address: Interactions Between Aquatic Ecosystems and the Atmosphere: From Contaminants to Biogeochemical Cycles
Jordi Dachs, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Research, Spain
Wednesday, 22 June 2005, 09:30 – 10:10
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: Atmosphere-ocean interactions and especially the exchanges of matter through the air-water interface are important mechanisms with implications on the cycling of pollutants, nutrients and other trace elements. The importance of these atmosphere-ocean exchanges is especially important for the fate, transport and cycling of organic compounds. In addition to the role of the ocean as a source of autochthonous volatile biogenic compounds, the ocean can act as an ultimate sink of anthropogenic and allocthonous biogenic organic compounds. Work realized in diverse limnic and marine ecosystems shows, for example, that atmospheric inputs dominate and control the levels and dynamics of persistent organic pollutants in the water column and in the aquatic food web. Evidence has been shown of a strong coupling and cycling of organic pollutants between the surface ocean and the lower atmosphere. Furthermore, quantification of atmospheric inputs for individual organic compounds at local, regional and global scales show that diffusive air-water exchange fluxes are at least one order of magnitude higher than wet and dry aerosol atmospheric inputs. Surprisingly, most of these estimates have only been obtained for few individual organic compounds, but have neither been measured nor calculated previously for the bulk of atmospheric organic matter. In fact, the atmospheric budget of organic carbon is so poorly constrained that even an inventory of total atmospheric organic carbon is lacking. Recent research work will be shown that suggests the occurrence of high diffusive atmosphere-ocean exchanges of total organic carbon with a strong air-water coupling of concentrations consistent with our knowledge for individual organic compounds. Implications for oceanic and atmospheric carbon budgets will be drawn.

Biography: Dachs received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering by the Polytechnical University of Catalonia (1992). He received his Ph.D. in Marine Sciences by the Polytechnical University of Catalonia in 1999, and his Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Department of Environmental Sciences of Rutgers University in 2000. Since 2000, Dachs has been a research scientist at the Department of Environmental Chemistry of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC). Currently he is on sabbatical leave at the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University.

Dachs´ research interests are in the field environmental geochemistry of organic compounds and have focused mainly on the biogeochemical cycles of persistent organic pollutants and other semivolatile compounds. He has contributed to the understanding of the air-water cycling and coupling of organic compounds at local, regional and global scales and the understanding of the influence of water column biogeochemical processes on the atmospheric deposition of organic compounds. Recent work has focused on the quantification of the atmosphere-ocean exchanges of total organic carbon and their role on the carbon cycle.

Recipient of the Alfred C. Redfield Achievement Award Talk: Evolution of the Role of Optics in Aquatic Research (Oceanography and Limnology)
Andre Y. Morel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, France
Thursday, 23 June 2005, 09:00 – 09:30
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: “Optical Oceanography […] is generally considered as a special branch of Oceanography, [...] the subject is chiefly physical” (N. Jerlov, Introduction to his book). For a long period, ocean optics, like atmospheric optics, has evolved as an application of physics to the study of the environment, forming a specific (sometimes rather isolated) part of physical oceanography. During the last 40 years, the considerable expansion of optics of natural waters was mainly triggered by the demand expressed by biologists, even if some aspects (often of military interest, such as submarine visibility and communication, for instance) remained essentially of physical nature. A citation of a sentence written by J.T.O. Kirk in the preface of his book can shed light on the interaction between biologists and opticists: “This book is a study of light in underwater environment from the point of view of photosynthesis. It sets out to bring together the physics of light transmission through the medium, and capture by plants..”. This aim was also the raison d’être of the SCOR-UNESCO Working Group 15 (on photosynthetic radiant energy in the sea), set up in the early 60s, and chaired by J.E. Tyler.

Transmission of radiant energy requires the determination of AOP (apparent optical properties sensu Preisendoerfer, like diffuse attenuation and reflectance); capture of energy requires the knowledge of IOP (inherent optical properties, like absorption and scattering, absorption by a phytoplanktonic cell). IOP and AOP are related through the Radioactive Transfer Equation. This equation has, during the recent past, required a large amount of theoretical work to be numerically solved in the direct way (IOP toward AOP), or as an inverse problem (AOP toward IOP, and then towards optically active components).

The role of optical tools has increased thanks to the improved interpretation of the optical signals in terms of biologically significant parameters (including at the level of unicellular organisms), and to the development of the adequate instrumentation, as already pointed out in 1984, by C.M. Yentsch and C.S Yentsch, (“Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev.,). Optical parameters, however, are generally “proxies” for biological entities (e.g. light scattering as indicator of cell size in cytometry), so that it was necessary to study the significance of the measured quantities to warrant a correct and useful interpretation. Despite some limitations, the definite advantages of optical techniques stem from their non-intrusive nature, and from the possibility offered for continuous vertical profiling, and long term monitoring (moorings, gliders.). The culmination of optical techniques was the introduction of satellite-borne sensors and the sensing from space of the sea spectral reflectance (SSR or Ocean Color). This introduction, twenty years ago, has motivated many of the bio-optical studies in the last decades. Among other motivations, desirable improvement in the use and interpretation of the SSR signal will continue to energize the present, biogeochemistry oriented, optical research.

Biography: Morel began his career as an officer serving in the French Navy from 1958-1961. After leaving the Navy, he began work at the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris). He advanced from assistant professor to Professor “de Classe Exceptionelle”, between 1962-1990. While working at the University Pierre et Marie Curie, he also directed the Laboratory of Physical and Marine Chemistry (1982-1994) and the Observatory of Oceanology (in Villefranche-sur-mer) (1983-1990).

He has made major research accomplishments in the fields of optical properties of oceanic waters and living organisms, primary productivity, ocean and atmospheric radiation, and ocean color data processing.

Morel has held numerous prestigious international positions, which include: past member of the SCOR WG 15 and 70, and past member of ESA Ocean Color Group (1983-1992). Beginning in 1975, he served over 20 years with The International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (IAPSO) as a leader of committees, working groups and the association itself. More recently, he has participated in the SeaWiFS and SIMBIOS (NASA) science team, and in European Space Agency sponsored advisory groups and scientific committees, and as a member of the International Ocean Color Coordinating Group (1997-present).

Prior to his recognition as ASLO's 2005 recipient of the Alfred C. Redfield Lifetime Achievement Award, Morel has been honored with awards by the Remote Sensing Society (1990), Prix Binoux de l' Académie des Sciences (1990), and The Oceanographic Society (2000), and has received the Prince de Monaco Medal (2003).

Plenary Address: Limnology and Oceanography Through the Eyes of Ramon Margalef: The Legacy of a Visionary
David W. Schindler, University of Alberta, Canada
Thursday, 23 June 2005, 09:30 – 10:10
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: For almost six decades, Ramon Margalef remained at the cutting edge of limnology, oceanography and ecology, authoring over 300 papers and several books in all three fields. His broad knowledge included microbial biology, phytoplankton, zooplankton, community and ecosystem ecology. In contrast to the simplified approaches of other early ecosystem ecologists, Margalef believed that no details of community or ecosystem interactions should be ignored. He was one of the first to apply cybernetics and information theory to ecology. His expertise as a naturalist allowed him to use ecological examples, rather than those stolen from other disciplines, to make his points. Margalef’s clearly written little book, Perspectives in Ecological Theory, introduced students of my generation to the key concepts in ecology. In a review of the book for Nature, Ed Deevey termed Margalef “The Sage of Barcelona.” Margalef always had time for students and younger scientists, including those from other countries. His whimsical sense of humor made science fun, and the fun was contagious. He directed over 50 doctoral students, who now practice limnology all over the world.

Biography: Dr. David W. Schindler is the Killam Memorial Professor of Ecology at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. From 1968 to 1989, he founded and directed the Experimental Lakes Project near Kenora, Ontario, conducting experiments on whole ecosystems to directly test the effects of nutrient inputs, acid rain, climate change and other human insults. His work on eutrophication and acid rain has been widely used in formulating ecological management policy in Canada, the USA, and in Europe.

Dr. Schindler received his doctorate from Oxford University, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar. He has served as President of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, and as a Canadian National Representative to the International Limnological Society. He is the author of over 260 scientific publications.

Dr. Schindler has received numerous national and international research awards, including the G.E. Hutchinson Medal of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (1985), the Naumann-Thienemann Medal of the International Limnological Society (1988), the first Stockholm Water Prize (1991), the Volvo International Environment Prize (1998), the Queen’s Jubilee Medal (2003), and the 2003 Killam Prize for Natural Sciences. In 2001, he was awarded Canada’s highest scientific honor, the NSERC Gerhard Herzberg Gold Medal for Science and Engineering. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, the Royal Society of London (UK), the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, and a member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences. He has received eight honorary doctorates from Canadian and US universities. In January 2004, he was appointed an Officer in the Order of Canada.

Plenary Address: Within the Black Box: Species-Explicit Interactions in Aquatic Systems
Thomas Kiørboe, Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, Denmark
Friday, 24 June 2005, 09:00 – 9:40
Santiago Hall - Palacio de Congresos y Exposiciones de Galicia

Presentation: Biological processes and interactions in the ocean occur at the level of the individual and between individuals, not between populations, species or trophic levels. Kiørboe will aim at demonstrating how insights in the behavior of individual plankters may help us understand the dynamics of plankton populations and the structure and functioning of pelagic food webs. He will illustrate this point by telling the two very different stories of (1) how the vertical material flux in the ocean is governed by the formation and turnover of marine snow aggregates that, in turn, depend on small-scale physics (coagulation) and the behavior of microbes and small zooplankters, and (2) how the abundance, dynamics and structure of copepod populations are governed by the mating behavior and inefficiency of mate finding in pelagic copepods. Mechanistic insights in the component processes will allow us to extrapolate to scenarios other than those examined and to describe (model) the larger scale features (abundances, distributions, fluxes, etc.) in a way that maximizes the predictive power.

Biography: Kiørboe began his career in 1973, as a student instructor at the Institute of Biochemistry and Zoological Laboratory at the University of Copenhagen. He left in 1977, to complete one year of mandatory civil service. He returned to teaching in 1978 and, in 1979, he became a teaching assistant at Roskilde University Center until 1982. In parallel with this position, Kiørboe served as a research scientist, Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen.

In 1982, he assumed the position of associate professor in the Institute of Life Science and Chemistry, at Roskilde University Center. Kiørboe joined the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research in 1983, as a research scientist and, in 1992, advanced to the position of senior research scientist. During his tenure as a research scientist, he served as DANIDA advisor at Phuket Marine Biology Center, Thailand, from 1990-1991.

In 1994, Kiørboe was promoted to professor at the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research, a position that he currently holds. While in this position, he has spent most of his time as an external lecturer and presently teaches Biological Oceanography at the University of Southern Denmark. His research interests lie in the areas of biological oceanography and ecological physiology of planktonic organisms. He has participated in or led more than 20 sea-going cruises with Danish and foreign research vessels.

Kiørboe is co-editor or member of the editorial boards of five international journals, a member of more than 20 Ph.D. committees and has published over 130 papers. His honors include: Member of the Royal Danish Society of Science and Letters, Member of the Danish Academy of Natural Sciences and is listed as “Highly Cited Author” by ISI.

Kiørboe earned his Masters of Science in Biology in 1977, Ph.D. in 1982, and Doctor Scient, in 1988, all from the University of Copenhagen.

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