The Sunday evening welcome address and all plenary sessions will be held in the Santa Fe Convention Center, Sweeney Ballroom, Sunday evening and Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday morning. There is no plenary session on Wednesday. To view a streaming video of the presentation, click on the presentation title.
Over the past four-hundred years in northern New Mexico, the Santa Fe River’s evolution from clear mountain stream to dewatered urban ditch is tied closely to basin physiography and landscape processes, governmental and demographic changes, and the conflicting ideologies dividing its finite waters. This research underscores the connection between the natural system and the effects of humans in molding its past and present condition. The Santa Fe River was once the community’s lifeblood, providing a means of sustenance and a sense of place. People gave the river animate qualities, treated it as a living part of the community, and shared its water equitably and beneficially. Now the often ignored, often dry channel sits several feet below street-level. Past traditions of water allocation and governance via acequia (irrigation ditch) communities are starkly different from the present piping infrastructure: now, river water is stored behind dams and delivery occurs at a price. Research objectives included: (1) describing the past and present conditions of the Santa Fe River from a physical perspective, including the effects of human actions on hydrology (flow) and geomorphology (form); and (2) documenting river function throughout the last four centuries of its history, while emphasizing the role of water in the region’s initial survival, subsequent growth, current prosperity, and future challenges. These research objectives are met by applying geographic methods inherent to GIScience, hydrology, and fluvial geomorphology.
The digital reconstruction of historical acequia networks, the estimation of irrigation land totals from the rectification of historical maps, and the correlation of streamflow (reconstructed from tree-ring data) to yearly irrigation potential are new methods that connect river water availability and historical events. Findings indicate the influence of acequia agriculture on river hydrology and fluvial geomorphology is underemphasized. This environmental history of the Santa Fe River presents significant findings within a framework of flow, form, and function to elucidate the dominant role of humans in transforming land and water resources at the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.
Dr. John Haines will be attending on behalf of Dr. Marcia McNutt of the U.S. Geological Survey
Biographical Information: John Haines is currently the Coastal and Marine Program Coordinator for the U.S. Geological Survey. In that capacity he leads a coastal and marine geology program supporting research spanning issues including storm, tsunami and earthquake hazards; coral reef health; sediment and contaminant transport; gas hydrates; and sand and aggregate resources. A primary focus of the USGS coastal and marine program is to provide research and information products, including geologic, coastal, and habitat maps, vulnerability assessments, and models; that inform management decisions with respect to coastal change including sea-level rise. John represents the USGS on the Joint Subcommittee for Ocean Science and Technology; is a co-chair of the Interagency Working Group for Ocean and Coastal Mapping; and is a co-lead for one of the Ocean Research Priorities Plan near-term priorities Forecasting Coastal Ecosystem Response to Persistent Forcing and Extreme Events. John received his Ph. D. in physical oceanography from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. His thesis research developed and applied statistical tools to decompose multi-variate data sets and identify the structure of infragravity wave fields over complex nearshore topography. Joining the USGS as a research oceanographer in 1989 John published on topics including field observations and models of cross-shore flows in the nearshore environment, hurricane impacts on barrier islands, and the response of wetlands to variations in local sea-level over decadal time-scales. He participated in and led regional coastal erosion studies in Lake Michigan and Lake Erie. John was appointed to his current position, based in Reston, VA, in 2001.
This talk will describe the current turbulence in global change science, the enormous need for effective interdisciplinary research, the successes in limnology and oceanography, the roles of site-specific research and cruises. The presentation will try to connect the dots to how global change research could benefit from the model provided by successful limnology and oceanography programs.
Biographical Information: Steve Carpenter’s research addresses trophic cascades and their effects on production and nutrient cycling, contaminant cycles, freshwater fisheries, eutrophication, nonpoint pollution, ecological economics of freshwater, and resilience of social-ecological systems. From 2000 to 2005 he led the Scenarios Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. He is passionate about innovation for resilience of people and nature and leads a new program of the International Council of Science to advance basic research on social-ecological systems. Carpenter has been recognized for excellence in research by the G. Evelyn Hutchinson Medal of the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, election to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and other honors. He serves as the director of the Center for Limnology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where he is the Stephen Alfred Forbes Professor of Zoology. He is co-editor in chief of Ecosystems, and he is a member of governing boards for the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Resilience Alliance, and South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Studies. Carpenter has published five books and about 300 scientific papers, book chapters, reviewed reports and commentaries.
(Co-author on the paper Dr. Rosi-Marshall will present is Todd V. Royer, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.)
A staggering number of anthropogenic compounds occur in aquatic ecosystems today, many of them at trace concentrations. One group of compounds that has captured the interest of both the scientific community and general public is pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), e.g. hormones, chemotherapy drugs, antihistamines, stimulants, antimicrobials and various cosmetics. Toxicology of some PPCPs is currently understood, but their effect on ecological structure and function of aquatic ecosystems is unknown. We explore possible sources and fates of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems, including the potential for non-point sources to play a larger role as sources than previously thought. We will discuss the challenges associated with measuring PPCPs, examining their effects and assessing the overall impact of this suite of compounds on aquatic ecosystems. Toxicological work examining effects of these compounds on individuals or populations is clearly important, but aquatic ecologists have expertise in measuring transformations, fate and transport of solutes and organic matter in aquatic ecosystems and bring a unique set of skills to understanding the dynamics of pharmaceutical compounds in aquatic systems. Our goal is to explore how aquatic ecology might contribute to understanding the environmental risk posed to aquatic ecosystems by the ubiquitous occurrence of PPCPs.
Biographical Information: Dr. Rosi-Marshall conducts research on factors that control and influence ecosystem function in human-dominated ecosystems. Freshwater is one of the most vital and threatened resources; understanding how human-driven global change impacts freshwater ecosystem function is essential. Her research focuses on several aspects of human modifications to freshwater ecosystems such as land use change and restoration, widespread agriculture and associated crop byproducts, urbanization and the release of novel contaminants, and hydrologic modifications associated with dams. In July of 2009, Rosi-Marshall became an associate scientist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies at Millbrook, New York. Prior to that, she had been both an associate professor and an assistant professor at Loyola University of Chicago where she received the Sujack Award for Excellence in Teaching, College of Arts and Sciences.
Historically, the study of limnology has been synonymous with examination of pelagic (open-water) production and processes. The littoral zone has sometimes been viewed as separate from the pelagic, or as a refuge from predators, but rarely as a significant source of productivity at the whole-lake level. In contrast, stable carbon isotopes indicate that benthic-fixed carbon is an important, and sometimes dominant supporter of fish production in lakes, and that fishes integrate these two habitats and production pathways. Benthic production appears to be efficiently passed up the food chain to higher consumers, and generally supports more species diversity than an equivalent amount of pelagic production. In addition, benthic insect emergence from lakes can be a substantial flux of aquatic energy and nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems. His talk will highlight these aquatic-terrestrial linkages with examples from ongoing research at Lake Myvatn, Iceland. Littoral and pelagic zones each have distinct properties, and both contribute in important ways to lake ecosystems. A growing understanding of the interconnections among lake habitats is leading to a more holistic paradigm of lake ecosystem function that recognizes the importance of cross-habitat linkages.
Biographical Information: Jake Vander Zanden is an associate professor at the Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin - Madison. He received his bachelor degree (1994) and Ph.D. (1999) from McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Awards and honors include a David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellowship, the International Recognition of Professional Excellence Prize (IRPE, Ecology Institute, Germany), J. C. Stevenson Memorial Award (Canada), the Phillip R. Certain Dean’s Distinguished Faculty Award, and the Vilas Associates Award. Vander Zanden’s research interests include food web ecology, invasive species, conservation biology, and limnology. Much of his work has emphasized the use of science to improve environmental management. He has been a participant in the Wisconsin Buffers Initiative (WBI), a group charged with planning riparian buffer policy to improve water quality. Other research includes salmonid conservation in the western U.S. and Mongolia, invasive species spread, impact and management, and the restoration of the Laurentian Great Lakes food webs. He currently teaches courses in limnology and ecology of fishes at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Presentation: Arid Land Rivers: "Boom and Bust" or Buggered?
Dry land river systems have received little attention from aquatic scientists compared to those in more humid regions, even though they drain more than half of the world’s land mass and support nearly 40% of the human population. Most are losing systems, with discharge per unit area decreasing rapidly downstream from headwater regions. While some are dependent on snow-pack or glacial melt in mountainous headwaters and have relatively stable base-flow conditions, many sit at the extreme end of the flow variability spectrum with discharge dependent on episodic monsoonal rain events. Because of their unique climatic and flow settings, dry land rivers are often highly productive systems with characteristic boom and bust ecologies. Many are associated with vast floodplain wetland systems that support large populations of fish, migratory birds and other wildlife during seasonal or episodic flood events. For much of the time, however, many consist of a chain of fragmented waterholes. These provide important refugia for aquatic biota during protracted intervals between flows, as well as sustain terrestrial wildlife and human settlements. Water diversion remains the single biggest threat to dry land rivers and overexploitation of water resources has led to spectacular wetland losses in some systems. Even modest levels of water abstraction, especially during dry periods, can lead to increased fragmentation of aquatic habitat and loss of permanent refugia. Climate change is likely to compound this problem and further increase flow variability and dry-spell duration. During dry periods, evaporative losses, transpiration requirements of riparian vegetation, and groundwater-surface water interactions become important hydrological processes. Unfortunately, much of our routine flow measurement and modeling is designed to meet human water needs and does not deal well with the low-flow end of the hydrological regime. As a consequence, our ability to manage environmental flow requirements for important ecological assets in dryland rivers is heavily constrained.
Biographical Information, Stuart Bunn: Professor Bunn is the director of the Australian Rivers Institute at Griffith University in Brisbane. His major research interests are in the ecology of river and wetland systems with a particular focus on ecosystem processes, and he has published widely on this topic. Bunn has extensive experience working with international and Australian government agencies on water resource management issues. He is a member of the Scientific Steering Committee for the Global Water System Project, the chair of the Scientific Advisory Panel for the Lake Eyre Basin Ministerial Council and the deputy chair of the Scientific Expert Panel for the Southeast Queensland Healthy Waterways Partnership. He also leads the Australian Climate Adaptation Research Network for Water Resources and Freshwater Biodiversity and in 2008 was appointed as a national water commissioner. In 2007, Bunn was awarded the Australian Society for Limnology Medal in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and management of Australia's inland waters.
Biographical Information, Cliff Dahm: Professor Dahm is currently the lead scientist for the CALFED Science Program in Sacramento, California. He is an ecosystem ecologist with expertise in restoration ecology, biogeochemistry, microbial ecology, hydrology, climatology and aquatic ecology. He is presently on loan to the U.S. Geological Survey from the University of New Mexico (UNM), where he is a professor in the Department of Biology. He emphasizes interdisciplinary approaches required for understanding aquatic ecosystems. He has served as interim director for the Sevilleta Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, director for the Freshwater Sciences Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program at UNM and is currently a member of the Science Steering Group for the Global Water Budget Program of the U.S. Global Change Research Program. He has served as a program director for the Division of Environmental Biology of the National Science Foundation and was awarded the NSF's Director's Award for Program Management Excellence.
Many organisms have developed defenses to avoid predation by species at higher trophic levels. The capability of primary producers to defend themselves against herbivores affects their own survival, modulates the strength of trophic cascades and changes the outcome of competition in aquatic communities. Algal species are notoriously flexible in their morphology, growth form, biochemical composition and production of toxic and deterrent compounds. Several of these variable traits in phytoplankton have been interpreted as defense mechanisms against grazing. Zooplankton feed with differing success on various phytoplankton species, depending primarily on size, shape, cell-wall structure and the production of toxins and deterrents. Chemical cues associated with grazing are the main factor triggering induced defenses in both marine and freshwater algae. Consumer-induced defenses in phytoplankton include changes in morphology (e.g. formation of spines, colonies, thicker cell walls), biochemistry (e.g. production of toxins, repellents) and in life history characteristics (e.g. forming of cysts, reduced recruitment rate). The ecology and evolution of constitutive and induced defenses in marine and freshwater phytoplankton will be discussed, with a special focus on the types of defenses, their costs and benefits, and their consequences at the community level.
Biographical Information: Ellen Van Donk’s research aims to elucidate how ecological mechanisms, evolutionary principles, and abiotic factors govern the dynamics and structure of food webs in lakes. She is most interested in the study of more complex ecological mechanisms that shape food web structure and dynamics such as inducible defenses, adaptive sweeps within evolving phytoplankton populations, fungal parasitism of phytoplankton and keystone predation by fish and birds.
As a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Michigan - Ann Arbor she studied competition between phytoplankton species working together with Susan and Peter Kilham. Van Donk later worked as the head of the research department at the Water Board in the State of Utrecht, examining lakes and rivers and applying restoration measures to these waters. Thereafter, she was appointed as an associate professor at the Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management of the University of Wageningen. During these years she spent research periods at the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) and the University of Oslo. In 1998, Van Donk joined the NIOO-KNAW-CL (Netherlands Institute for Ecology - Centre for Limnology situated in Nieuwersluis) as head of the Department of Food Web Studies where she continues to examine her main research interests in plankton dynamics and ecology, phytoplankton succession, lake eutrophication and ecosystem stress, and food web studies.
Van Donk has been a member of ASLO since 1980, and she served as an associate editor for Limnology and Oceanography in addition to serving on the board of ASLO. She has been chairman of the Dutch Society of Aquatic Ecology and a member of the board of the Biological Council of the Dutch Royal Academy of Science. She was editor of the Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology and associate editor of Ecosystems, Freshwater Biology, Ecological Informatics, Research Letters in Ecology and International Journal of Ecology. She is also on the editorial board of the freshwater domain of The Scientific World (Internet journal). She has been an advisor and peer-reviewer for the South Florida Water Research District since 1993 and executive vice president of the SIL (Societas Internationales Limnologiae) since June 2007. As well, she serves on scientific research panels, reviews proposals for funding agencies in North America and Europe, and she is a reviewer for more than 20 journals.
Oceanography has a long history as an expeditionary science, where oceanographers continue to go to sea for brief periods on ships, and scientific discovery is enabled by new observational technologies. The 1980’s are often viewed as the start of the satellite revolution in ocean observing, with space-based imagers and altimeters providing the first regularly updated spatial maps of the changing surface of the world ocean on a sustained basis. The 1990’s saw the beginning of the ocean observatory revolution, when efforts began to develop similar capabilities for sustained spatial sampling beneath the surface. In the ensuing 20 years, shore-based remote sensing networks, profiling drifters arrays, and fleets of autonomous underwater robots were developed that compliment the sustained observations from space. With global communication enabled by the Internet, distributed communities of scientists have developed. Oceanographers can now go to sea with their colleagues on the World Wide Web, and our students at all levels can join us.
This talk traces the Coastal Ocean Observation Lab’s 20-year history of building an ecosystem-scale coastal ocean observatory, discusses the technology-enabled scientific progress we made in the process and how it benefits society today. He will present plans for extending the observatory to other large-scale marine ecosystems around the world. This is especially important today, when the dual pressures of growing human populations and a changing climate are stressing ecosystems worldwide. Moreover, he will discuss how ocean observatories enable our education programs to reach a broader audience, and how ocean education is feeding back on ocean science, changing the face of oceanography.
Biographical Information: Scott Glenn is a professor of marine and coastal sciences at Rutgers University. He received his Sc.D. in ocean engineering from the MIT/WHOI Joint Program in 1983. He worked first at Shell Oil for 4 years as an ocean wave and current forecaster and then at Harvard University for another 4 years as a Gulf Stream forecaster for the U.S. Navy. For the past 20 years at Rutgers, Scott has designed, deployed, operated and utilized some of the most technologically advanced ocean observing systems for research, applications and education, publishing over 150 papers with his colleagues and students.
With Oscar Schofield, he is co-director of the Rutgers University Coastal Ocean Observation Lab, a globally distributed collaboratory for ocean science. He is a member of the board of directors for the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System’s (IOOS) Mid-Atlantic Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (MACOORA), and is the lead PI for its Mid-Atlantic Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System (MARCOOS). He is a board of directors member for the Department of Homeland Security’s Center of Excellence for Port Security, a Project Scientist for the National Science Foundation (NSF) Ocean Observing Initiative (OOI)’s Cyber Infrastructure Implementing Organization (CI IO), leads a Slocum Glider Technology Center for the Office of Naval Research, and maintains the East Coast data hub for the NOAA National High Frequency Radar network.
Scott’s education programs directly leverage the resources of the growing ocean observing community. He is a Co-PI for the NSF Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence – Networked Ocean World (COSEE-NOW), is a science advisor for the NOAA Ocean Science Curriculum Sequence, and is a Collaborating Scientist and Teacher for the NSF Communicating Ocean Sciences network of researchers and educators. At Rutgers, he is a faculty PI for Oceanography House, an undergraduate living and learning community supporting a wide range of students with an interest in the ocean.