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New Technology and Methods

SS01 Ecosystem-Based Marine Spatial Planning For Better Management Of Our Oceans — See Schedule

Conveners:Angel Borja, AZTI-Tecnalia; Marine Research Division; Pasaia (Spain), aborja@azti.es; Tundi Agardy, Marine Affairs Research and Education (MARE), tundiagardy@earthlink.net; Steven Degraer, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences; Marine Ecosystem Management Section, S.Degraer@MUMM.ac.be

In recent times, human pressures and subsequent impacts on marine ecosystems have increased dramatically. This is due to both traditional activities (e.g. fishing, resource extraction, pollutant discharges and maritime transport) and recent increasing use of marine resources (e.g. offshore aquaculture and marine renewable energy exploitation). Many countries have introduced new legislation to address these challenges (e.g. the US Marine Policy, Canada’s Oceans Act, and the E.U. Marine Strategy Framework Directive). These regulations seek to safeguard marine ecosystems, through an integrative ecosystem-based approach encompassing all ecosystem components in order to allow sustainable use of marine goods and services. Marine spatial planning is the best framework to consider present and future human activities and systematically plan and achieve better management of our oceans. The main objective of this session is to showcase approaches undertaken in different countries to implement such plans and to draw lessons for an improved marine spatial planning process ensuring a proper implementation of the ecosystem-based approach.

SS13: Integrative Approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment of Nonindigenous Aquatic Species: Frameworks for Enhancing Prediction, Reducing Uncertainty, and Improving Management — See Schedule

Conveners:Marion Wittmann, University of Notre Dame, Marion.E.Wittmann.3@nd.edu; Jennifer Howeth, University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, jghoweth@as.ua.edu

Ecological risk assessment, which includes an understanding of the potential for establishment, spread, and impact of nonindigenous species, provides a tool used by scientists and managers to respond to current invasions and predict future invasions. In this session, investigators utilize science, economics, and risk assessment to address ecological and/or economic impacts of current and future aquatic species invasions, quantify major uncertainties and ways to reduce uncertainty, and identify methodologies that relate to cost-effective management of nonindigenous species. We suggest that these integrative approaches to nonindigenous species risk assessment will further enhance our understanding of the ecology of species invasions, and improve methods of identifying and managing invasive species. Presentations and posters should address risk assessment and/or impacts of nonindigenous aquatic species. A wide variety of analyses and applications will be considered.

SS23: Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics: Towards a Molecular-Level Understanding — See Schedule

Conveners:Jutta Niggemann, Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, jniggema@mpi-bremen.de; Aron Stubbins, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, aron.stubbins@skio.usg.edu; Thorsten Dittmar, Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, tdittmar@mpi-bremen.de

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the main carbon and energy source for heterotrophic microorganisms in aquatic systems. The microbial community shapes DOM composition (and vice versa), leaving behind a characteristic molecular imprint in DOM. Abiotic environmental factors like solar irradiation, interactions with solids or hydrothermal heating cause substantial changes in the molecular DOM composition. Emerging analytical techniques provide molecular information on DOM composition and microbial communities in unsurpassed detail, allowing for a molecular-level understanding of biotic and abiotic processing of DOM. This session aims at bringing together different fields of DOM research. Integrative studies linking molecular DOM characteristics to microbiological and abiotic transformation are of particular interest.

SS28: In Situ Aquatic Sensors for the 21st Century — See Schedule

Conveners:Douglas P. Connelly, National Oceanography Centre, dpc@noc.soton.ac.uk; Dr Veronique Garcon, CNRS, veronique.garcon@legos.obs-mip.fr

Despite the global importance of the aquatic environment, it remains temporally and spatially under sampled. Traditionally water samples have been collected and processed in a laboratory. These methods are unable to provide the temporal and spatial resolution that is required to understand the chemical and biological processes taking place within the oceans. They can also be subject to chemical changes, may not reflect the ambient conditions at the time of sample collection and can suffer from contamination due to handling techniques. In situ methods minimise these problems and can provide a much greater sampling rate and distribution. Aquatic sensors use a range of techniques from optical techniques (e.g. optical fibers, hyperspectral imaging, planar optodes, Raman spectroscopy) to wet chemical, electrochemical, eddy correlation and biosensor techniques. Measurements include nutrients, trace metals, carbonate, pCO2, pH, oxygen, sulphide species and pollutants. In addition, challenges common to all sensor development such as their integration onto multiple platforms and instruments (observatories, autonomous underwater vehicles, remotely operated vehicles) and biofouling must be addressed. This session will present some of the latest developments in this important field combining technology, engineering, chemistry, biology and physics.

SS45: Employing Riverine Organic Matter as an Integrated Signal of Catchment Processes, Climate and Land-Use Change — See Schedule

Conveners:Peter Hernes, University of California, pjhernes@ucdavis.edu; Erin Ellis, University of Washington, ellise@u.washington.edu; Robert Spencer, Woods Hole Research Center,rspencer@whrc.org

Catchments from the Arctic to the Tropics are readily defined ecological units linking land to the ocean, and as such represent a logical spatial scale for monitoring and studying organic matter (OM) processing. The geochemical composition of rivers draining watersheds represents an integrated signal of all processes occurring within the catchment, and therefore is impacted by climate and land-use change, as well as seasonal cycles that are frequently missed due to snapshot sampling. We solicit contributions that consider molecular to watershed scale processes with respect to understanding OM dynamics. Research utilizing biomarkers, natural abundance and radiocarbon isotopes (including compound specific), spectrophotometric techniques (e.g. absorbance, fluorescence), advanced mass spectrometry (e.g. FT-ICR MS), NMR and other characterization and isolation techniques to understand OM dynamics and reactivity (e.g. photo and biolability) are encouraged. Studies utilizing these analyses to examine OM processing and how it is changing in river basins due to land use (e.g. deforestation, urbanization) and climate change (e.g. permafrost thaw, rainforest to savanna), as well as time series studies are especially encouraged to contribute to the session. We also solicit studies bringing together a broad range of geochemical techniques to further our understanding of OM at the land-ocean interface.

SS53: Sensor Networks in Aquatic Systems: Research and Education — See Schedule

Conveners:Bob Chen, University of Massachusetts Boston , bob.chen@umb.edu; Joe Needoba, Oregon Health and Science University, needobaj@ebs.ogi.edu; Brian Bergamaschi, USGS, bbergama@usgs.gov; Janice McDonnell, Rutgers University,  mcdonnel@marine.rutgers.edu

High variability in watershed, river, and coastal ocean properties over short time scales and small spatial scales requires continuous and fine-scale observational capabilities to understand processes and evaluate long-term trends. Recent advances in sensors, sensor networks, data visualization, modeling, and prediction have greatly increased our awareness, understanding, and use of such data. This session invites papers that demonstrate the application of sensors and sensor networks in aquatic systems as well as papers using this data for education and outreach.

SS61: Ecosystem Engineering as Coastal Protection – Lessons from Theory and Practice — See Schedule

Conveners:Luca A. van Duren, Deltares, luca.vanduren@deltares.nl; Jasper Dijkstra, Deltares, jasper.dijkstra@deltares.nl; Denise Reed, University of New Orleans, djreed@uno.edu

Many aquatic species can be classified as ecosystem engineers, i.e. they modify the environment either by creating biotic structures or by changing its physical dynamics. Some plants and animals have a major influence on near-bed hydrodynamics and thereby on sedimentation and erosion. These interactions between water, sediment and biota have consequences for the near-shore and coastal landscape and for the dynamics of fine sediment in the water column and the bed. Research into these interactions requires close cooperation between scientists from different disciplines. Meanwhile, there is growing interest from both ecosystem managers and from conservation organizations in using biogeomorphological processes to provide coastal protection, while simultaneously improving the natural status of coastal areas. Combining ecosystem functions such as sediment accretion (improving protection) and habitat formation (improving nature) can provide adaptable solutions for coastal areas, especially as most ecosystem engineering approaches will naturally adjust to sea-level rise and are resilient to storm damage. Simultaneously, adopting such solutions requires a certain mindset and awareness of coastal communities to accept “soft” coastal defenses. This session invites presentations dealing both with the underlying biogeomorphological processes as well as with the application of ecosystem engineering species in coastal protection.

SS64: Quasi-Lagrangian Approaches in Pelagic Ecology — See Schedule

Conveners:Mark D. Ohman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, mohman@ucsd.edu; Michael R. Landry, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, mlandry@ucsd.edu

Methods for identifying and sequentially tracking discrete water parcels and entrained plankton populations have advanced to the point where it is feasible to conduct quasi-Lagrangian studies of plankton populations even in some dynamic coastal and oceanic environments. This session invites contributions that utilize different approaches to tracking water parcels and following planktonic organisms, with an emphasis on the resulting rate processes and population dynamic parameters that can be inferred in situ. Contributions are encouraged that address tracers and in situ perturbation experiments, drifting mesocosms, in situ drift arrays, modeling studies, and other quasi-Lagrangian approaches that help resolve planktonic distributions and vital rates.

SS72: Studies of Zooplankton and other Particles using Optical Instruments — See Schedule

Conveners:George A. Jackson, Texas A&M University,gjackson@tamu.edu; David M. Checkley, Jr., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, dcheckley@ucsd.edu

Advances in situ electronic sensors have made sampling aggregates and animals in the ocean with optical instruments feasible. The more difficult tasks include interpreting the observations and using them to understand the ocean. Although all optical instruments use light, they use it in different ways that yield different results. All use absorption. Some also image. Examples are the LOPC, UVP, VPR, ISIIS, and SIPPER; others exist. We invite people using various instruments to come together to compare techniques and observations.