Observing Systems

SS6.01: Research Experiences of Undergraduates in Aquatic Sciences
Organizers: Russell Cuhel, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (rcuhel@uwm.edu) and Carmen Aguilar, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (aguilar@uwm.edu)

This is a poster session for undergraduate research activities undertaken the previous year. The NSF-sponsored session invites 15 students from OCE REU sites, and lately almost twice as many contributed papers are also involved. The session provides documented opportunity for recruitment of potential graduate students from a pool of the “cream” of now-senior undergraduate students.

SS6.02: Advanced Underwater Robotics and Their Contributions on Aquatic Sciences
Organizers: Michio Kumagai, Lake Biwa Research Institute (kumagai@lbri.go.jp) and Mary Jane Perry, Darling Marine Institute, University of Maine (perrymj@maine.edu)

The use of underwater robotics has been greatly accelerated in the last several years, and the goals of this session are to present examples of recent successes and to exchange information on advances in technology. For example, the Lake Biwa Research Institute has developed the AUV tantan and is continuously using it for environmental monitoring. Such new underwater technologies can be used well to serve societal needs by improving observations of environmental change and by providing tools for environmental protection, fisheries monitoring, and so on. We understand that international cooperation is essential for promoting science interests and improving technology. The aim of this session is to contribute toward an exchange of information on various aspects of autonomous measurement of marine systems.

SS6.03: Analysis of Zooplankton Distributions Using the Optical Plankton Counter
Organizers: Henry A. Vanderploeg, GLERL/NOAA (Henry.Vanderploeg@noaa.gov) and Michael R. Roman, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (roman@hpl.umces.edu)

In recent years there has been a proliferation of use of optical plankton counters (OPC) to describe spatial distribution, biomass spectra, and production of zooplankton in large lakes, estuaries, coastal and marine systems. We envision this special session to bring together experts to discuss recent advances in instrumentation and data analysis as well as application the OPC to determine spatial distribution, biomass spectra, and production of zooplankton in a wide variety of estuarine, coastal, and offshore environments. Both strengths and limitations will be explored. A particular strength relates to its ability to collect high-resolution spatial information on towed vehicles, especially in combination with other sensors. The potential weaknesses, such as questions as to what particles are being counted and coincidence counting, will be examined. Recent advances in understanding zooplankton abundance and production from the OPC will be highlighted.

SS6.04: Using Real-time Environmental Data for Education
Organizers: Michiko Martin, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - National Marine Sanctuaries (michiko.martin@noaa.gov) and Ken Casey National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - National Ocean Data Center (ken.casey@noaa.gov)

The National Center for Education Statistics estimates that 98% of public schools and 77% of all instructional classrooms in the United States are connected to the Internet, with over three-fourths of these schools wired with fast, dedicated lines such as 56Kb, T1, and DS3 lines (Cattagni and Westat, 2001). The numerous schools connected to the Internet discover rich resources readily available at the click of a button. In the sciences, the ability to access real-time or near real-time datasets provides educators the mechanism whereby students become researchers with the ability to observe phenomena, pose explanations to describe what they see, devise and conduct tests to support their theories, analyze data, draw conclusions from experimental data, and design and build models-the essence of inquiry-based teaching (Budnitz, 2000), the learning model most supported by the National Science Education Standards (1996). While the potential to nurture the young minds of budding scientists is enormous, so too are the challenges associated with introducing live data streams into the classroom. As articulated by the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (2002), there is a genuine need to identify realistic strategies and protocols for using real-time observatory data in educational settings. This special session will address these issues, especially within the context of how researchers and educators can team together to improve and simplify access to relevant datasets in both formal and informal education in a manner that enhances public use and understanding of environmental information.

SS6.05: Ocean Observing Systems: Novel Approaches to Studying and Monitoring Large Marine Ecosystems and their Living Resources
Organizer: Charles Greene, Cornell University (chg2@cornell.edu)

Large marine ecosystems (LMEís) are of considerable economic importance to the United States. Economic stakeholders in the living marine resources provided by these LMEís include commercial and recreational fisherman as well as those engaged in non-exploitive activities, such as tourism and other forms of outdoor recreation. A number of anthropogenic threats, such as eutrophication, toxic pollution, overfishing, and the side effects of commercial fishing (e.g., bottom habitat alteration, entanglement in fishing gear) and transportation (e.g., ship collisions with marine mammals), can disrupt LMEís and the living resources on which these stakeholders depend. Climate variability and change can also manifest themselves as apparent disruptions in ecosystem services and alterations in the abundance of living resources.

Ocean observing systems must be developed that can monitor changes in these LMEís and their living resources as well as enable scientists to study the processes underlying these changes. In this session, we will highlight novel approaches for studying and monitoring LMEís and their living resources. Innovative applications of remote-sensing techniques will be described, including those employing a variety of optical, other electromagnetic, and acoustical sensors deployed in situ, on aircraft, and on satellites. The integration of these various remote-sensing components into fully operational ocean observing systems will improve the science-based management of living marine resources and thereby better serve the interests of economic stakeholders and society at large.

SS6.07: Optical Observation of Phytoplankton Dynamics: Looking Beyond Biomass
Organizers: Yannick Huot, Dalhousie University (yhuot@dal.ca) and Ricardo Letelier, Oregon State University (letelier@coas.oregonstate.edu)

Absorption, scattering, and fluorescence by phytoplankton form the basis of ocean color research and are the backbone measurements of many in situ and remote sensing observation systems. Most of the methods thus far developed are aimed at estimating phytoplankton biomass. However, new optical approaches and technologies are rapidly expanding our capabilities to monitor changes in phytoplankton physiology and other microbial assemblage properties. In this session, we will discuss optical methods used or being developed to study characteristics of the microbial community other than phytoplankton biomass. These methods include, but are not restricted to, the study of phytoplankton physiology and productivity, species composition, variations in cell optical properties and particle size distribution as observed using in situ or remotely sensed approaches.

SS6.08: IOOS and Regional Observing Systems: Science, Status and Plans
Organizers: Larry Atkinson, Old Dominion University and Ocean, US (atkinson@ccpo.odu.edu) and Tom Malone, University of Maryland and Ocean, US (t.malone@ocean.us)

Creating the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and Regional Associations (RAs) will require design of new sampling and data management schemes and development of new instruments. This session will focus on the science of ocean observing with emphasis on the IOOS and the RAs.

SS6.09: Assimilation of Observing System Data into Ocean Models
Organizers: Gregg A. Jacobs, Naval Research Laboratory (jacobs@nrlssc.navy.mil) and Christopher N. K. Mooers, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science/Applied Marine Physics, University of Miami (cmooers@rsmas.miami.edu)

A new era has burst upon us where there are several data-assimilative basin-scale and global-scale models being run in an operational mode, thus, potentially providing open boundary conditions (OBCs) to regional and coastal ocean domains. Much of the global work is being done in conjunction with GODAE. Assimilation systems have been constructed for the deep ocean and work has begun to provide autonomous analysis and predictions in the littoral area as well. There are examples now of applying data assimilation to marine ecosystem dynamical models which opens a new strategy for marine ecosystem analysis.

This session seeks contributions to examine the present state and hurdles that must be crossed to assimilate measurements from planned observing systems into numerical ocean models. The connection of the assimilation systems to the observing systems must be very close in order to insure that 1) the assimilation systems are capable of combining the measurements with dynamics in a rigorous manner, and 2) the measurements that will be most important to the assimilation systems will be available. This second point includes identification of the attributes of an observing system that are desirable for data assimilation. Several basic questions regarding importance of data assimilation remain open. With the recent improvements in atmospheric forcing, tidal forcing, and runoff forcing, and with the new OBCs, if they verify and validate well, what remains to be done for data assimilation in regional and coastal ocean models? What are the nondeterministic processes and what are the forcing errors that assimilation must correct? The methodology for assimilation is presently exploring several paths including adjoint techniques as well as ensemble filtering methods. Which of these techniques are the most robust under a wide range of dynamical situations, which are most computationally feasible and provide a solution closest to the optimal? Further questions present themselves when examining the problem from the "strategic mode" (i.e., sustained operations with a fixed domain, plus fixed modeling and observing system) and "tactical mode" (i.e., event-driven operations with a flexible domain, plus rapidly-deployable modeling and observing system). All these aspects are open to examination in this session.



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