Coupled Physical-Biological Processes

SS2.02: Biological Microscale Patterns and Processes in the Ocean: Towards a Seascape Topology
Organizers: Laurent Seuront, Station Marine de Wimereux-CNRS ( and James J. Mitchell, The Flinders University of South Australia (

Populations of viruses, heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton cells represent fundamental elements in ocean carbon cycling processes, and a thorough understanding of how marine microplankters interact with the local environment and other organisms is subsequently of relevance to marine food web structure, biogeochemical processes, and ultimately climate change models. Accordingly, analyses of microplankton abundance, community composition and productivity have become principle measurements in oceanographic ecosystem studies. Considering the increasing awareness of the heterogeneous nature of the distributions of plankton abundance, diversity and activity from decimeter to millimeter scales where the most ecologically relevant processes of viral infection, nutrient uptake, cell division and behavior occur, the ocean should be regarded as a “seascape,” and should subsequently be topologically classified by analogy with landscape ecology. Seascape ecology is nevertheless still in its infancy. It is in such a framework that this session seeks papers presenting new insights into the microscale character of microplankton patterns and processes, in terms of measurements, data analysis, modeling and simulation techniques, as well as its relationships with chemical and physical processes.

SS2.03: Biological Adaptations to Turbulent Flow
Organizers: Paul Moore, Bowling Green State University ( and John Crimaldi, University of Colorado (

Organisms at all size scales encounter turbulence and have to solve the ecological problems associated with turbulence. Some of these problems include nutrient dynamics by phytoplankton, feeding encounters by copepods, broadcast spawning in benthic organisms, orientation to flow and chemicals in crustaceans and swimming in fish. Many of these organisms have evolved unique behavioral, morphological, and ecological adaptations to solve the problems that turbulence presents them. It is our desire to have a session dedicated to a multitude of scales and biological situations in order to examine common solutions or adaptations to hydrodynamic problems.

SS2.04: Effects of Small-Scale Turbulence at the Community and Ecosystem Levels
Organizers: Francesc Peters, Institut de Ciencies del Mar, CMIMA (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain ( and Harry Havskum, Marine Biological Laboratory, Helsingør, Denmark (

Small-scale turbulence has been shown to affect a range of biological organisms and processes. There are bottom-up effects that should increase the net production of the system as well as top-down effects that should move biomass into the heterotrophic compartments. Small-scale turbulence will also affect sedimentation to some degree. Dinoflagellates, a group of planktonic organisms with strong social impact as some species will produce noxious or harmful algal blooms, have special responses to small-scale turbulence. All these effects on biological activities and community structure modify the quantity and/or quality of particulate matter and therefore have consequences for biogeochemical fluxes. We invite contributions that integrate or help to integrate the effects of small-scale turbulence at the community and ecosystem level. Experimental, theoretical, and modeling efforts are all welcome.

SS2.05: The Effect of Turbulence on Pelagic and Benthic Organisms
Organizers: Thomas Kiorboe, Danish Fisheries Institute ( and Joe Ackerman, University of Guelph (

This special session examines the effect of turbulence on the ecophysiology of pelagic and benthic organisms, which appears to be non-linear in nature. A number of hypotheses have been forwarded to explain these patterns in planktonic predator-prey systems, but a more complete explanation is lacking in other systems (e.g., phytoplankton growth and most processes for benthic organisms). This session therefore encourages papers that examine the effects of turbulence on the physiology and ecology of aquatic organisms regardless of the taxon or scale of analysis. Papers that couple the physical environment with biological outcomes are encouraged.

SS2.06: Island and Sea Mount Oceanography: Physics, Biogeochemistry and Fisheries
Organizers: E.D. Barton, University of Wales, Bangor, UK ( and Pierre Flament, University of Hawaii at Manoa (

Specific oceanic processes occur in the vicinity of oceanic islands and sea mounts: oceanic wakes form downstream of islands immersed in a strong mean flow; mid-latitude islands chains reflect planetary waves, inducing boundary currents; ocean eddies are generated over sea mounts or spun up by Ekman pumping in the atmospheric wake of mountainous islands, a process similar to eddy generation by offshore wind jets; complex interactions with mesoscale flows generated remotely occur with islands in a coastal transition zone, or within a constrained basin. Islands and sea mounts make a poorly quantified but important contribution to mesoscale eddy activity in the ocean. All these processes have important bio-geochemical implications, disturbing the depth of the nutricline to enhance production locally. Because of their persistence and repeatability these phenomena play a vital role in the life cycle of island and sea mount fish populations. Spawning and development strategies take advantage of the flow properties and enhanced productivity to maximize the retention and survival of island and sea mount species. In recent years, several major programs have focused on the Canaries and Hawaiian islands in particular, while many other islands and sea mounts have been subject of long term studies.

SS2.07: PARADIGM: The Partnership for Advancing Interdisciplinary Global Modeling
Organizer: Lewis M. Rothstein, University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (

PARADIGM is a NOPP-funded, 5-year renewable program comprised of a group of 16 scientists committed to building and deploying new, advanced models of ecology and biogeochemistry for understanding and predicting the future states of the ocean. The group combines expertise of observers and modelers, ecologists and physicists, biogeochemists and numerical specialists. Our overall scientific goal is a rigorous, model- and observation-based intercomparison of ecosystem/biogeochemical dynamics of the North Pacific and Atlantic subtropical - subpolar gyres. Our central objective is creation of new global ocean biogeochemistry community models, comprising complex ecosystem dynamics based on functional groups (e.g., Archaea, diatoms, copepods, gelatinous predators), individual keystone species (e.g., Trichodesmium, Euphausia superba) and multielement limitation and cycling (e.g., C, N, P, Si, Fe). The physical model platform is composed of a hierarchy of mature, general circulation models each the focus of extensive community model development programs. PARADIGM models will be capable of emergent behavior testing the hypothesis that fundamental regime shifts occur in response to climate change. Community models will be developed by interdisciplinary teams devoted to five program elements: (1) data fusion, synthesis and validation; (2) ecosystem model development; (3) high-resolution basin scale and regional process studies; (4) focus sites (i.e., regional test-beds) and (5) numerical method development (including data assimilation). This special session will highlight the first two years of research.

SS2.08: Development of Coupled Models and Biological Sampling Strategies to Improve Prediction
Organizer: Paul Snelgrove, Memorial University of Newfoundland (

Ichthyo-/zooplankton sampling and models based primarily on physical oceanography have been used independently to explain spatial and temporal variation in recruitment and population dynamics of marine and freshwater organisms. Both approaches have advantages and limitations. Models offer a mechanistic explanation but oversimplify behaviors, whereas studies based primarily on biological sampling must infer mechanisms from indirect evidence. In recent years, studies that couple biological sampling with oceanographic modeling have greatly improved the utility of models, as well as our understanding and predictive capacity. Nonetheless, the temporal and spatial scales of biological sampling that are necessary to constrain physical transport models remains an active research question, as does the capacity of models to resolve circulation on spatial scales that are biologically relevant. We will explore how sampling and models can be developed in tandem to improve understanding of plankton community dynamics in space and time.

SS2.09: Physical and Biochemical Evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 90's
Organizer: Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (

In the period 1985-1998 the Eastern Mediterranean has been the subject of very intensive research coordinated by the international collaborative program POEM (Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean) which in 1990 became POEM-BC including biological and chemical components. The program involved the collaboration of scientists from all the riparian countries of the Eastern Mediterranean. The two last observational surveys of POEM-BC which covered the entire Eastern Mediterranean were carried out in 1995 and 1998. Modeling effort was intensive throughout all this period. A special session of JGR-Oceans is forthcoming with the same title proposed for this Symposium. This special session comprises 24 interdisciplinary observational and modeling papers.

SS2.10: The Role of Bermuda Based Studies in Our Understanding of Ocean and Atmospheric Processes
Organizer: Anthony Knap, Bermuda Biological Station for Research (

2003 is the 100th year of the Bermuda Biological Station for Research Inc. This session will focus on the history and scientific achievements that have been accomplished in this part of the Atlantic off Bermuda from early discovery of the deep ocean of Beebe to the achievements of various time series programs. BBSR is 100, Station S is 50, OFP is 25 years old. In addition, understanding of mode water, Redfield ratios and even the importance of iron were studied off Bermuda.

SS2.11: The Newest Generation of Deep Sea Exploration
Organizers: Craig N. McLean, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration ( and Margot Bohan, NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration (

The goal of this session is to stimulate an exchange of views about past, present and future deep sea exploration opportunities, with an emphasis on coupled physical-biological processes. The session will include presentations or a panel discussion addressing recent developments in interdisciplinary exploration programs (with a concentration on coupled physical-biological processes) and future exploratory science opportunities; identify the benefits, drawbacks, & opportunities for improvement in this field of study, and discuss the role of deep sea exploration, particularly coupled physical-biological processes, relative to the broader field of ocean sciences. Those who participate in this session will present specific examples and/or participate in a panel discussion about physical-biological processes- themed exploratory studies and the future direction of related exploratory study. As time allows, the session chair will prompt each speaker to identify benefits, drawbacks and opportunities for improvement in this field and relative to the broader field of ocean sciences.

SS 2.12: Structure in an Apparently Uniform Environment
George Jackson, Texas A&M University ( and Thomas Kiörboe, Danish Institute for Fisheries Research (

The 3-D pelagic environment appears to be a featureless region, with biologically useful signals and regions continually mixed by turbulence and diffusion. However, plankton organisms and particles leave ephemeral chemical and hydromechanical signatures. The resulting spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of solutes, particles and organism creates microenvironments, which organisms can sense and utilize. This session invites contributions that study organism-organism and organism-environment interactions at the scale of the individual and or that examine the larger-scale and population-scale implications of such interactions.



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