A comparison of sampling methods for larvae of medium and large epipelagic fish species during spring SEAMAP ichthyoplankton surveys in the Gulf of Mexico
Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 12:86-101 (2014) | DOI: 10.4319/lom.2014.12.86
ABSTRACT: Annual ichthyoplankton surveys have been conducted in the Gulf of Mexico during spring since 1982 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP). Historically, ichthyoplankton has been assessed using bongo and surface neuston nets. A new sampling gear, the S-10 net, was tested between 2009 and 2011. This is a 1 × 2 m frame fitted with a 0.505 mm mesh net, towed in a yo-yo fashion between the surface and 10 m. Sampling effectiveness of the three gears was compared by examining the abundance and length of larvae of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and seven co-occurring pelagic taxa (Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleteratus, Coryphaena spp., Katsuwonus pelamis, other Thunnus spp., family Istiophoridae, and Xiphias gladius) and vertical distributions of scombrid taxa were examined using MOCNESS samples. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) of net type and time of sampling (day/night) indicated that net type was a significant factor in assessing abundance and length for all taxa. Highest abundances for seven of eight taxa were in S-10 samples, and MOCNESS samples confirm highest scombrid abundance between the surface and 20 m. Our results show sampling effectiveness strongly depends on the depth fished by the net and that the S-10 net was more effective than standard SEAMAP bongo and neuston nets. Thus, future sampling with the S-10 net may improve the annual index of larval abundance for the western population of Atlantic bluefin tuna, traditionally based on abundance from bongo samples.