Physical fractionation of aquatic viral assemblages
Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 9:150-163 (2011) | DOI: 10.4319/lom.2011.9.150
ABSTRACT: Aquatic viruses are extraordinarily diverse and have major influences on plankton ecology and evolution, but the majority of these viruses remain uncharacterized. Most viruses have not been cultivated and cultivationindependent means to explore viral diversity have provided only a fragmented view of viral genomic information. In this study, ultracentrifugation and chromatographic methods were evaluated for their ability to fractionate aquatic viruses based on their differing physical properties with the aim of physically enriching subsets of aquatic viruses for further study. Centrifugation in continuous cesium chloride gradients, strong and weak anion-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography with Sephacryl S-1000 were found to separate aquatic viruses based on their differing buoyant densities, surface charges, and sizes, respectively. Sucrose density gradients, cation-exchange chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography using controlled-pore glass were found to have insufficient resolution to effectively separate viral assemblages. Using the successful methods listed above, we were able to separate complex assemblages of viruses into fractions that had distinguishable subsets of the viruses present in the original community as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Strong anion-exchange chromatography was particularly effective at separating viruses in the samples and resulted in one to six dominant viral genome bands in most fractions. Our results suggest that individual populations of viruses may be physically enriched, and possibly isolated, from complex assemblages without cultivation. These fractionation methods are expected to improve our ability to characterize the genotypes and phenotypes of the uncultivated majority of viruses in aquatic environments.