Degradation of particulate organic matter in the equatorial Pacific Ocean: Biotic or abiotic?
Limnol. Oceanogr., 56(1), 2011, 333-349 | DOI: 10.4319/lo.2011.56.1.0333
ABSTRACT: The behavior of organic matter (OM) in suspended and sinking particles in the equatorial Pacific Ocean was monitored by measuring lipid degradation products that are specific for biodegradation, photooxidation, and autoxidation. Photodegradation and autoxidation were significant for lipids associated with both suspended and sinking particles. Abiotically degraded terrestrial material strongly contributed to suspended particles and to sinking material in the deep ocean, probably as the result of incorporation of terrestrial particles into sinking aggregates. Analyses of degradation products of 24-methylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol, 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3β-ol, and cholest-5-en-3β-ol gave diagnostic information concerning the differential behavior of phytoplanktonic, terrestrial, and zooplanktonic OM, respectively. Planktonic lipids were more susceptible to biodegradation than terrestrial lipids and biodegradation was more intense in sinking particulate organic matter (POM) than suspended POM, which we attribute to efficient transfer of singlet oxygen from suspended and senescent phytoplankton cells to associated bacteria and subsequent inhibition of heterotrophic degradation. There is a direct link between the photooxidation state of lipids of senescent phytoplankton cells in suspended particles and the apparent resistance of lipids toward biotic degradation. Terrigenous vascular plant OM, which is strongly autoxidized on land or in the atmosphere as it is transported to the remote ocean, is only weakly biodegraded during sedimentation in this open ocean setting. A significant increase in alkenone-based UK'37 values (+0.07 equivalent to an inferred temperature change of +2°C) was observed in sinking particles with depth and the detection of epoxyalkenones further confirming the potential detrimental effect of aerobic bacterial degradation processes on the UK'37 paleotemperature proxy.