Seasonal evolution of the basin-scale internal wave field in a large stratified lake
Limnol. Oceanogr., 45(7), 2000, 1621-1638 | DOI: 10.4319/lo.2000.45.7.1621
ABSTRACT: The response of the water column to varying conditions of stratification and wind forcing was investigated in Lake Kinneret (Israel) using data collected from thermistor chains and acoustic Doppler current profilers during 1997 and 1998. The strong daily sea breeze was found to generate a vertical mode 1 internal Kelvin wave and basin-scale internal Poincare´ waves of vertical modes 1, 2, and 3. The Kelvin wave, the dominant component of the internal wave field, was responsible for alongshore velocities in the nearshore regions. In the upwind nearshore regions, velocities were dominated by the forced response to the wind and were cross-shore in nature. In the lake interior, the Kelvin wave effect on the horizontal velocity field was minor compared to the higher vertical mode Poincare´ waves. The Kelvin wave is shown to exist in resonant and nonforced states with the wind, whereas the vertical mode 1 Poincare´ wave energy remained relatively constant, despite large variability in the forcing conditions. The energy in the higher mode Poincare´ waves varied greatly, both on daily and seasonal timescales. The results demonstrate that the wind energy forces multiple basin-scale internal wave modes and that prior motion in the water column must be considered when determining the subsequent internal wave response in periodically forced systems.