Posted by Kate Voss, UCCHM Water Policy Fellow. This is the fourth in a series of posts on our Water Diplomacy trip to Israel, Jordan and Palestine. Other posts in the series: 1) Middle East Lost a Dead Sea Amount of Water in 7 Years, by Jay Famiglietti, 2) Parallel Worlds: Water Management in Israel and California, by UCCHM Policy Fellow Kate Voss, and 3) Desalinating Holy Waters with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conveyance by UCCHM Graduate Fellow Sasha Richey.
If water management is a chess match, then it is already clear who the winners and losers are in the Middle East. At the core of this geopolitical game is the basic distribution of freshwater resources, and frankly, there are vast differences between the naturally available water resources in the region. Layer to this the additional complexity of political stability, financial assets, and other socioeconomic factors, and the outcomes for water management in the Middle East are explicit. Simply, some nations have few water resources and a lack of capabilities to effectively manage their limited resources – they are the losers. Other nations, those with more technological and economic capacity to maximize their limited resources, are the winners. During our trip to the Middle East in February, the lines were clear: Israel is winning water management in the region while Palestine and Jordan are losing.
That distinct division drawn, the reality is that the actions, decisions, and processes that led to this imbalance are complex. For while Israel is currently a regional (and global) leader in water management strategies, the nation has faced many challenges with competing user-groups, made trade-offs between short-term economic investment versus long-term sustainability, and leveraged its economic and political clout to ensure that the financial assets were in hand to prioritize water management solutions. Israel’s path to achieve water management success was not simple or easy. At the same time, while Jordan and Palestine have historically encountered many struggles to manage their incredibly scarce water resources, which for Palestine includes the challenge of being land-locked (making autonomous desalination impossible), their water managers are actively striving to improve the technological capacity and policy portfolio to optimize water use in the future.
Israel’s Geopolitical Advantages
As described in our previous post in Water Currents, Israel is a regional and global leader in water management strategies. Israel has a diverse portfolio of water sources that includes an extensive supply of desalinated water and recycled wastewater and, consequently, puts less pressure on its limited, natural freshwater sources from surface water and groundwater. When we met with the Israeli Water Authority and, specifically, the Hydrological Services team, it was clear that Israeli water managers have detailed knowledge and data about how much water they have, the precise source of that water, how much water is being used at any given moment, specifically who is using that water and for what purpose. Every last drop of water is accounted for and there is a specific individual who is in charge of managing each water supply source, such as the Sea of Galilee or the Mountain Aquifer. There is a direct line of communication between the Water Authority and Mekorot, the national water utility company, which allows for the supply and demand as well as the pricing of water in Israel to be meticulously monitored and regulated. Israel’s water management system is a well-oiled, robust machine.
Knowledge is power when it comes to water management, and Israel’s detailed understanding of its water resources has allowed the nation to strategically invest in new technology and solutions that allow for more stable and sustainable water planning. Furthermore, the economic and political clout that Israel can leverage to finance such solutions is significant. Without investment, political commitment, and long-term planning, Israel’s water success would not exist. In addition, Israel’s geographic assets – mainly it’s shoreline on the Mediterranean Sea – are essential to its success. The Mediterranean provides Israel an unlimited supply of water as long as the investment for infrastructure and energy costs for desalination are met. With new natural gas reserves discovered off the coast, once prohibitive energy expenses will now be obsolete. Armed with detailed knowledge about its water resources, new energy sources, and a strong sociopolitical backing, Israel’s water future looks bright.
An ancient aqueduct in East Bethlehem now runs dry and is filled with trash – a symbol of the West Bank’s deteriorated water infrastructure. Photo by: Kate Voss.
Tapping the Root of Jordan and Palestine’s Struggle
Yet while Israel is leading the world in innovative water strategies, its neighbors, Palestine and Jordan, are clearly struggling. During our trip in the Middle East, the core differences in the naturally available water resources as well as the social, economic, and political capability to address water resource management challenges was staggering. Before meeting with Mr. Ali Subah, the Secretary General Assistant of Technical Affairs at the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in Jordan, we had the opportunity to drive beyond the sprawl of Amman and into the surrounding desert. The land outside the city boundaries is vast, dry, and desolate – there are no water resources. Communities that dot the highway are dependent on either dwindling groundwater reserves or weekly water tankers. The situation is dire. Without proactive efforts to find and transport new sources of water, many of these communities will probably cease to exist, leaving only the shadow of a civilization, akin to the ancient ruins of Petra.
During our meeting with Mr. Subah, who is one of the leading water managers in Jordan, it was clear that he is trying his best to develop innovative, long-term solutions to Jordan’s water crisis. The pioneering solutions from Israel, such as desalination or wastewater recycling, may have a place in Jordan’s water strategy, but even those options are difficult to acquire. Wastewater recycling necessitates steep financial investment, and as a land-locked nation, desalination forces Jordan to place its water security in the hands of another nation. Neither of these options is perfect. Consequently, long-distance conveyance alternatives from friendly neighbors, such as pumping groundwater from Saudi Arabia or tanking water from Turkey, do not seem obscure when, as a water manager, you are coping with a physical water scarcity emergency. None of us envied Mr. Subah’s position.
Jordan’s feeble water situation is not for lack of effort or vision, but mainly a lack of resources. Few natural water assets combined with a weak socioeconomic foundation makes investment in long-term water strategies incredibly difficult. In Palestine, the situation is similar. According to a World Bank report from 2009, “economic disparities between West Bank Gaza (WBG) and Israel are large – in 2005, Israel’s Gross National Income (GNI) per capita was almost eighteen times the Palestinian GNI per capita. Water resources availability in the two neighbors is likewise far apart, with fresh water per capita in Israel is about four times that of WBG. Whereas Israel is known for efficient water infrastructure and management, Palestinians are struggling to attain the most basic level of infrastructure and services of a low income country.” Palestine’s situation is analogous to Jordan’s crisis, but with the added complexity of unclear sovereign rights to access and improve water resources.
The moon rises over Amman, a sprawling city surrounded by desert. With increasing population and limited water resources, Jordan’s capitol is already facing a water crisis. Photo by: Kate Voss.
At each of our meetings with the chief water managers in Israel, Palestine, and Jordan, our message was similar: invest in a monitoring system so that you can have the essential baseline data to understand your water resources. Based on this information, water managers can develop short- and long-term strategies that are rooted in the reality of actual water availability and use. Without this information, any decisions or solutions are based on speculation, at best. As previously mentioned, Israel has a strong foundation in data and monitoring while Palestine and Jordan are lagging. That said, water managers in Palestine and Jordan are actively making substantial efforts to lay the framework for an improved water monitoring system and are beginning to collect core data about their resources. With clear evidence about their changing water resources, these water managers will hold more power to leverage for the political and economic support they need to create actual change. In the future, our hope is that we at UCCHM will be able to support these efforts by providing training workshops to improve the skills and the capacity of water managers in Israel, Palestine, and Jordan to utilize the most cutting-edge data and tools to monitor and manage their water.
With these fundamental data and information in hand, water managers in Palestine and Jordan can begin to close the gap on their investment needs and to implement their own innovative solutions to tackle their water challenges. For Israel, there are clear economic and political benefits for improved water management in Palestine and Jordan. With any luck, water management will come forward as an issue of mutual interest for regional cooperation between Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. This will, of course, necessitate strong political, economic, and social backing from national, regional, and international leaders. At each of our meetings in the Middle East we heard that “water cannot be removed from politics” in this region. Consequently, the broader political and socioeconomic intricacies must be incorporated into water management and vice versa. With this complexity in mind we can only hope that the political currents of the region lead to improved water management and that, collectively, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan can see the benefit of a sustainable solutions for their shared water future.